George P. Landow Professor Emeritus of English and History of Art

Before coming to Brown in 1971, Landow taught at Columbia and Chicago universities, and he has since taught at NEH summer institutes at Yale. A Fulbright Scholar, Guggenheim Fellow, and Fellow of the Cornell Society for the Humanities, he has received numerous grants and awards from NEH and NEA, and has been invited to serve as Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford, British Academy Visiting Professor at the U. of Lancaster, Visiting Research Fellow in Computer Science at the U. of Southampton, Visiting Professor, U. of Zimbabwe, and Distinguished Visiting Professor, Shaw Professor of English and Computer Science, NUS and founding dean, University Scholars Programme, NUS. His books on Victorian literature and culture include The Aesthetic and Critical Theories of John Ruskin (Princeton UP, 1971), Victorian Types, Victorian Shadows (Routledge, 1980), Approaches to Victorian Autobiography (Ohio UP, 1979), Images of Crisis: Literary Iconology, 1750 to the Present (Routledge, 1982), Ruskin (Oxford UP, 1985), A Pre- Raphaelite Friendship (UMI, 1985), Elegant Jeremiahs: The Sage from Carlyle to Mailer (Cornell UP, 1986). His books on hypertext and digital culture include Hypermedia and Literary Studies (MIT, 1991), and The Digital Word (MIT, 1993) both co-edited with Paul Delany, and Hypertext: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology (Hopkins, 1992) and Hypertext 2.0 (1997), and Hypertext: Criticval Theory and New Media in an Era of Globalization (2006). He has also edited Hyper/Text/Theory (Hopkins, 1994). He is founder and webmaster of the Victorian, Postcolonial Literature and Culture, and Cyberspace, Hypertext, and Critical Theory websites, which contain around 52,000 documents and whihc receive as many as 20 million hits/month. See

Brown Affiliations

Research Areas

scholarly work

2.36 "Comparative Literature from Text to Hypertext, or What Do Electronic Media Have to Offer the Discipline?" Literatures in the Digital Era: Theory and Praxs. Ed. Amelia Sanz and Dolores Romero. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2007. 23-40.

Hypertext 3.0: New Media and Critical Theory in an Era of Globalization. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Korean translation forthcoming.

"Ipertesto: Test o Paratesto?" I Dintorni del testo: approcci alle periferie del libro. Ed. Marco Santoro and Maria Gioia Tavoni. Roma: Edizioni dell' Ateneo. 17-29.

"The paradigm is more important than the purchase: educational innovation and hypertext theory." Digital Media Revisited: Theoretical and Conceptual Innovation in Digital Domains. Eds. Andrew Morrrison, Gunnar Liestøl, and Terje Rasmussen. Cambridge: MIT Press. 35-64.

, "Educational Innovation and Hypertext: One's University's Successes and Failures in Supporting New Technology." Silicon Literacies. Ed. Ilana Snyder. London: Routledge. 101-115.

Hypertext 2.0. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Italian edition: L'ipertesto: Tecnologie digitali e critica letteraria. Trans. Viviana Musumeci. Milan: Bruno Mondatori, 1998.

Chapter 7, "La poesia da Tennyson a Hopkins," and Chapter 12, "Estetismo e Decadentismo." La Storia della civiltà letteraria inglese, Trans. Carla Pomarè Ed. Franco Marenco. 3 vols. Turin: Unione Tipografico-Editrice Torinese. II, 697-726, 799-825.

"Twenty Minutes into the Future, or How Are We Getting Beyond the Book?" The Future of the Book. Ed. Geoffrey Nunberg. Berkley: University of California Press. 209-38.

" Newman and the Idea of an Electronic University." The Idea of a University. Ed. Frank Turner. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996. 339-61.

Hyper/Text/Theory. Edited. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994. Edited. Spanish edition: Teoría del hipertexto. Trans. Patrick Ducher. Barcelona: Paidós Iberica,

"How to Read Ruskin: The Art Critic as Victorian Sage." John Ruskin and the Victorian Eye. New York: Harry N. Abrams. 52-79.

"Margaret M. Giles's Hero and the Sublime Female Nude." Gender, Voice, and Image in Victorian Literature and Art, ed. Antony H. Harrison and Beverly Taylor. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press.

Hypertext: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Italian edition: Ipertesto: Il futuro della scrittura.Trans. Bruno Bassi. Bologna: Baskerville,.; Spanish Edition: Hipertexto: La convergencia de la teoria critica contemporárnea y la technologia. Trans. Patrick Ducher. Barcelona: Paidós Iberica,; Japanese edition: Trans. Tadashi Wakashima, Genichiro Itakura, and Manabu Kawada. Tokyo: Justsystem,;A portion has appeared in Hungarian as "Preoblikovanne price" in Knjizevna Smotra 38): 23-32.

"Agressive (Re)interpretations of the Female Sage: Florence Nightingale's Cassandra." Victorian Sages and Cultural Discourse: Renegotiating Gender and Power. ed. Thaïs Morgan. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. 32-45.

Elegant Jeremiahs: The Sage from Carlyle to Mailer. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.

"Lawrence and Ruskin: The Sage as Word-Painter," in Lawrence and Tradition, ed. Jeffrey Meyers. London: Athlone Press, 1985; Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. 35--50.

Ruskin. ("Past Masters" series) Oxford: Oxford University Press,\

Images of Crisis: Literary Iconology, 1750 to the Present. Boston and London: Routledge & KeganPaul.

Victorian Types, Victorian Shadows; Biblical Typology in Victorian Literature, Art, and Thought. Bostonand London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

2.6 "And the World Became Strange: Realms of Literary Fantasy," in Fantastic Illustration and Design in Britain, 1850--1930. Providence: Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design. 28--43.

William Holman Hunt and Typological Symbolism. New Haven and London: Yale University Press,

Approaches to Victorian Autobiography. Edited with anintroduction. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press.

"There Began to be a Great Talking about the Fine Arts," in The Mind and Art of Victorian England, ed. Josef P. Altholz. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 124--45, 188--92.

The Aesthetic and Critical Theories of John Ruskin. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971; Winner of the Gustave O. Arldt Award for a book in thehumanities.

2.35 "Is This Hypertext Any Good? Evaluation and Hypermedia." Under construction: literaturas digitales y aproximaciones teóricas. Ed. Laura Borràs. Barcelona: Ediuoc).

research overview

George Landow has research interests in 19th-century literature, art, religion, and new media and hypertext theory.

research statement

George P. Landow has carried out pioneering research in a wide variety of fields, including Ruskin's biography, the relation of 19th-century aesthetics, moral theory, and psychological theory, 19th-century Biblical interpretation (said to be the world's expert on biblical typology in the 19th century). This research required a great deal of detective work, chiefly in private collections and MS libraries, as well as research libraries in the U.K. Landow has also done pioneering work on 19th century periodicals. His work on Pre-Raphelite painting involved searching for and discovering rare pamphlets, unpublished correspondence, and hard-to-locate paintings.

In the 1970s Landow began to employ mainframe computing with primitive line editor word-formatting to teach editing to postgraduate students, and from this effort a joint book publication resulted — A Pre-Raphelite Friendship . Landow increasingly began to work with aspects of computing, jointed Brown's IRIS in the design and use of Intermedia, a major pioneering hypermedia environment, and from this has come a half a dozen books, more than 100 invited internation lectures and workshops, and visiting professorships in computer science at Southhampton, Singapore, and Zimbabwe.

Landow, who invented the notion of the stylistics and rhetoric of hypertext writing, has conducted usability studies, comparisons of multiple software environments, and application of this technology to education, fiction and poetry. Virtually all of Landow's early research required work outside the Brown University library collections and much work abroad; most of Landow's work in computing, like his websites, have not received assistance from Brown but have been funded outside the university.

funded research

Visiting Research Fellow in Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, 1995 (expenses for 6 weeks of project)

British Academy Visiting Professor, Bowland College, University of Lancaster, 1994, for one-month feasibility study of electronic edition

Mellon Foundation Fresh Combinations Grant for a course in hypertext and literary theory, 1991-92 (one course relieved = $20,000)

National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute for College Teachers at Yale University (project director: Duncan Robinson), 1991

National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute for College Teachers at Yale University (project director: Duncan Robinson), 1988

Annenberg/Corporation for Public Broadcasting Planning Grant, for "The Continents of Knowledge," 1988 (not project director; amount approx. $2,000,000)

Annenberg/Corporation for Public Broadcasting Grant to develop educational software and course materials for the humanities, 1985-87 ($300,000)

National Endowment for the Arts Grant for "Ladies of Shalott," 1984-85 (project director; $20,000)

National Endowment for the Humanities summer stipend, 1984

Guggenheim Fellow, 1978 ($14,000-18,000)

National Endowment for the Humanities Project Development Grant, 1976 ($20,000)

Guggenheim Fellow, 1973 ($14,000-18,000)

Chamberlain Fellow, Columbia University, summer 1969 ($14,000-18,000)

Fellow of the Society for the Humanities, Cornell University, 1968-69 (stipend for full year)

Research Grant, Council on the Humanities, Columbia University, summer 1968 ($14,000-18,000)