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Lambert B. Freund Professor Emeritus of Engineering

Freund received his Ph.D. degree from Northwestern University in 1967. He is the author or co-author of over 190 published articles on stress waves in solids, fracture mechanics, seismology, computational mechanics, dislocation theory, thin films, microstructure evolution in films, and engineering education, plus monographs on Dynamic Fracture Mechanics and on Thin Film Materials. His current research interests include: mechanics of biological materials (cell adhesion, molecular transport in cell walls) and mechanics of thin film materials (evolution of microstructure, influence of strain on quantum mechanical transport, lattice mismatched heterostructures). Freund presently serves as Associate Editor of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and as President of the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. He is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Brown Affiliations

research overview

Freund's derivation of the equations describing the propagation of cracks in an elastic body has led to the understanding of dynamic fracture that is now widely used in such critically important applications as the safety of gas pile lines and the safety of nuclear containment vessels. Professor Freund's research is concerned with mechanical phenomena in solid materials, focusing on the relationship between the overall mechanical state of a deformable solid and the localized physical processes of material deformation and failure.

research statement

Freund's derivation of the equations describing the propagation of cracks in an elastic body has led to the understanding of dynamic fracture that is now widely used in such critically important applications as the safety of gas pile lines and the safety of nuclear containment vessels. Professor Freund's research is concerned with mechanical phenomena in solid materials, focusing on the relationship between the overall mechanical state of a deformable solid and the localized physical processes of material deformation and failure. Work on fracture in cases when material inertia effects are significant has led to descriptions of the processes of dynamic crack growth in elastic and elastic-plastic engineering materials, dynamic faulting in the earth's crust, fragmentation of ceramics and other brittle materials under impact loading, and dynamic failure in ductile materials. As a current focus, Professor Freund and his students have been concerned with mechanical phenomena involved in fabrication, reliability, and performance of solid-state electronic devices. Among the issues under study are: stress-driven surface diffusion and evolution of microstructure during vapor deposition of semiconductor materials, dislocation formation and growth in strained semiconductors, mechanics of self-assembly of quantum structures, influence of strain on quantum mechanical charge transport in heterostructures, and compliant substrate strategies for fabrication of mechanically stable strained semiconductor structures. Professor Freund was awarded the 2000 William Prager Medal by the Society of Engineering Science. He is the author or co-author of over 175 articles on stress waves in solids, fracture mechanics, seismology, computational mechanics, dislocation theory, mechanics of thin films, and applied physics, and the author of a Cambridge University Press monograph on Dynamic Fracture Mechanics. Currently, Professor Freund serves as Editor of the Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids and as Treasurer of the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

funded research

Contracts and grants by year

1969-70:

Analysis of guided surface waves, Advanced Research Projects Agency, one year, $9,000

1970-71:

An analysis of guided surface waves in crystals, Research Corporation, one year, $1,100

Surface waves guided by a slit in an elastic solid, Advanced Research Projects Agency, 1 year, $10,000

Inelastic response of metals to dynamic biaxial stresses, National Science Foundation, two years (co-investigator), $33,800

1971-72:

Analysis of guided elastic surface waves, Advanced Research Projects Agency, one year, $12,000

Plastic deformation of metals at high strain rates, Air Force Materials Laboratory, two years (co-investigator), $76,978

A combined macroscopic and microscopic approach to the fracture of metals, Atomic Energy Commission, one year (co-investigator), $81,900

1972-73:

Analysis of dynamic fracture, Advanced Research Projects Agency, one year, $13,000

The influence of biaxial loading and temperature on the dynamic behavior of metals, National Science Foundation, two years (co-investigator), $44,600

1973-74:

Analysis of brittle fracture under stress wave loading conditions, National Science Foundation, two years, $39,000

Analysis of dynamic fracture, Advanced Research Projects Agency, one year, $11,400

1975-76:

The analysis of running ductile fracture in pressurized pipelines, National Science Foundation, two years, $69,500

Fracture of strain rate sensitive materials, Advanced Research Projects Agency, one year, $14,000

The mechanical behavior of fcc metals based on experiments involving large increments in strain rate, National Science Foundation, three years (co-investigator), $138,000

Mechanical processes of crustal faulting, United States Geological Survey, one year (co-investigator), $25,000

1976-77:

Dynamic crack propagation, National Science Foundation/Materials Research Laboratory, one year, $15,000

1977-78:

Dynamic crack propagation analysis, National Science Foundation/Materials Research Laboratory, one year, $20,000

Plasticity effects in dynamic crack propagation, National Science Foundation, two years, $65,000

1978-79:

Dynamic fracture initiation and crack propagation in structural metals, Office of Naval Research, one year (co-principal investigator), $39,900

Dynamic crack propagation, National Science Foundation/Materials Research Laboratory, one year, $20,000

1979-80:

Dynamic fracture initiation and crack propagation in structural metals, Office of Naval Research, two years (co-principal investigator), $55,000

1980-81:

Plasticity effects in dynamic crack propagation,Office of Naval Research, two years, $83,000

Critical conditions for failure in materials subjected to high rates of loading, Army Research Office, one year, $27,000

Dynamic crack propagation, National Science Foundation/Materials Research Laboratory, one year, $29,500



1981-82:

Critical conditions for failure in materials subjected to high rates of loading, Army Research Office, one year, $36,000

Dynamic fracture initiation and crack propagation in structural metals, Office of Naval Research, one year (extension of scope), $34,000

Dynamic fracture of solids, National Science Foundation/Materials Research Laboratory, one year, $45,300

1982-83:

Plasticity effects in dynamic crack propagation, National Science Foundation, two years, $138,300

Dynamic fracture initiation and crack propagation in structural metals, Office of Naval Research, two years (co-principal investigator), $177,900

Dynamic fracture of solids, National Science Foundation/Materials Research Laboratory, one year, $43,700

1983-84:

Critical conditions for failure in materials subjected to high rates of loading, Army Research Office, one year, $30,000

Dynamic phenomena in plasticity and fracture, National Science Foundation/Materials Research Laboratory, 1 year, $42,700

Plasticity effects in dynamic crack propagation, National Science Foundation, equipment supplement to regular grant, $19,995

1984-85:

Mechanics of dynamic fracture, National Science Foundation/Materials Research Laboratory, one year, $39,900

Critical conditions for failure in materials subjected to high rates of loading, Army Research Office, three years (co-investigator) $1,100,000

1985-86:

Dynamic fracture initiation and crack propagation in structural metals, Office of Naval Research, two and one-half years (co-principal investigator), $381,000

Mechanics of dynamic fracture, National Science Foundation/Materials Research Laboratory, 10 months, $33,360

The influence of three dimensional effects during dynamic fracture of materials, National Science Foundation, one year, $65,686

The conductor/nonconductor interface, IBM Corp., five years (co-investigator), $2,000,000

1986-87:

The influence of three dimensional effects during dynamic fracture of materials, National Science Foundation, one year, $69,340

Mechanics of dynamic fracture, National Science Foundation/Materials Research Laboratory, one year, $44,433

1987-88:

Part 1. Mechanics of thin film structures; Part 2. Dynamic fracture of rate sensitive plastic solids, Office of Naval Research, two and one-half years, $589,148

Microstructural mechanisms of dynamic ductile fracture and implications for structural failure, Army Research Office, one year (co-investigator), $350,000

The influence of three dimensional effects during dynamic fracture of materials, National Science Foundation, one year, $76,000

Plasticity and fracture of materials, National Science Foundation/Materials Research Group, one year, $43,797

1988-89:

Plasticity and fracture of materials, National Science Foundation/Materials Research Group, one year, $55,383

Computation in mechanics of materials, Office of Naval Research, one year, (coinvestigator), $370,000

1989-90:

Plasticity and fracture of materials, National Science Foundation/Materials Research Group, one year, $43,797

Microstructural mechanisms of dynamic ductile fracture and implications for structural failure, Army Research Office, one year (co-investigator), $350,000

1990-91:

Mechanics of strained layer materials for microelectronic applications, Office of Naval Research, one year, $229,600

Mechanics of materials, National Science Foundation/Materials Research Group, one year, $13,800

Investigation of dynamic material response for model development, Army Research Office, one year (co-investigator), $299,000

1991-92:

Mechanics of strained layer materials for microelectronic applications, Office of Naval Research, one year, $231,000

Mechanics of materials, National Science Foundation/Materials Research Group, one year, $15,000

Investigation of dynamic material response for model development, Army Research Office, one year (co-investigator), $137,000

Mixed atomistic-continuum studies of defects in electronic and structural materials, (with M. Ortiz), Air Force Office of Scientific Research, one year, $114,872

MRS Symposium on Thin Films, National Science Foundation, one year, $2,500

Mechanics of Materials in Microelectronics, IBM Corporation, one year, $48,500

1992-93:

Mechanics of strained layer materials for electronic applications, Office of Naval Research, one year, $200,000

Dynamic behavior of brittle materials, (principal investigator, with R. Clifton, K. S. Kim and M. Ortiz) Army Research Office, one year, $395,861

Micro-mechanics of failure-resistant materials, (co-investigator) National Science Foundation/Materials Research Group, one year, $13,000

Mixed atomistic-continuum studies of defects in electronic and structural materials, (with M. Ortiz), Air Force Office of Scientific Research, one year, $110,820

Ultrafast dynamics of electronics and phonons in nanostructures, (co-investigator) National Science Foundation/Materials Research Group, one year, $30,035

1993-94:

Mechanics of strained layer materials for electronic applications, Office of Naval Research, one year, $260,000

Dynamic behavior of brittle materials, (principal investigator, with R. Clifton, K. S. Kim and M. Ortiz), Army Research Office, one year, $376,000

Workshop on Dynamic Behavior of Brittle Materials, Army Research Office, one year, $4,950.

Micro-mechanics of failure-resistant materials, (co-investigator) National Science Foundation/Materials Research Group, one year, $30,000

Ultrafast dynamics of electrons and phonons in nanostructures, (co-investigator) National Science Foundation/Materials Research Group, one year, $28,271

Mixed atomistic-continuum studies of defects in electronic and structural materials, (with M. Ortiz), Air Force Office of Scientific Research, one year, $113,000

1994-95:

Dynamic behavior of brittle materials, (principal investigator, with R. Clifton, K. S. Kim and M. Ortiz), Army Research Office, one year, $376,000

Micro- and Nano-mechanics of failure resistant materials, (co-investigator) National Science Foundation/Materials Research Group, one year, $26,938 (LBF allocation)

Ultrafast dynamics of electrons and phonons in nanostructures, (co-investigator) National Science Foundation/Materials Research Group, one year, $28,000 (LBF allocation)

Mixed atomistic/continuum studies of defects in electronic and structural materials, (co-principal investigator with R. Phillips and M. Ortiz), Air Force Office of Scientific Research, two years, $245,972

Mechanics of materials for power-electronics control devices, Office of Naval Research, one year, $220,000

1995-96:

Dynamic behavior of brittle materials, (principal investigator, with R. Clifton, K. S. Kim and M. Ortiz), Army Research Office, one year, $376,000

Simulation and analysis of dynamic failure of ductile materials, Department of Energy, one year, $98,919

Mixed atomistic/continuum studies of defects in electronic and structural materials, (co-principal investigator with R. Phillips and M. Ortiz), Air Force Office of Scientific Research, see 1994-95

Mechanics of materials for power-electronics control devices, Office of Naval Research, one year, $225,000

Micro- and Nano-mechanics of failure resistant materials, (co-investigator) National Science Foundation/Materials Research Group, one year, $36,227 (LBF allocation only)

1996-97:

Dynamic behavior of brittle materials, (principal investigator, with R. Clifton and K. S. Kim), Army Research Office, one year, $376,000

Simulation and analysis of dynamic failure of ductile materials, Department of Energy, one year, $99,419

Mixed atomistic/continuum studies of defects in electronic and structural materials, (co-principal investigator with R. Phillips and M. Ortiz, Caltech), Air Force Office of Scientific Research, one year, $134,086

Mechanics of materials for power-electronics control devices, Office of Naval Research, one year, $200,000

Micro- and nano-mechanics of materials, (co-investigator with R. Clifton as principal investigator), National Science Foundation/MRSEC, one year, $1,200,000

1997-98:

Dynamic behavior of brittle materials, (principal investigator, with R. Clifton and K. S. Kim), Army Research Office, one year, $376,000 (no cost ext.)

Simulation and analysis of dynamic failure of ductile materials, Department of Energy, one year, $99,860

Mixed atomistic/continuum studies of defects in electronic and structural materials, (co-principal investigator with R. Phillips and M. Ortiz, Caltech), Air Force Office of Scientific Research, one year, $131,932

Mechanics of materials in fabrication and performance of power-electronics devices, Office of Naval Research, one year, $118,576

Micro- and nano-mechanics of materials, (co-investigator with R. Clifton as principal investigator and 8 other co-investigators), National Science Foundation/MRSEC, one year, $1,200,000

1998-99:

Simulation and analysis of dynamic failure of ductile materials, Department of Energy, one year, $99,860

Mechanics of materials in fabrication and performance of power-electronics devices, Office of Naval Research, one year, $118,576

Micro- and nano-mechanics of materials, (co-investigator with R. Clifton as principal investigator and 8 other co-investigators), National Science Foundation/MRSEC, one year, $1,200,000

1999-00

Micro- and nano-mechanics of materials, (co-investigator with C. Briant as principal investigator and 9 other co-investigators), National Science Foundation/MRSEC, one year, $1,200,000

Mechanics of materials in fabrication and performance of power-electronics devices, Office of Naval Research, one year, ~$100,000

Crack growth in nonhomogeneous solids and structures, Department of Energy, two years, $227,000

2000-01:

Micro- and Nano-Mechanics of Electronic and Structural Materials, (co-investigator with C. Briant as principal investigator and 15 other co-investigators), National Science Foundation/MRSEC, one year, $1,500,000

Dynamic failure of ductile structural materials, Office of Naval Research, continuing award, ~$145,000 per year

Crack growth in nonhomogeneous solids and structures, Department of Energy, continuing award, ~$112,700 per year

Acquisition of a high performance parallel workstation cluster for research" (with 4 collaborators), National Science Foundation, three years, $171,575

2001-02:

Micro- and Nano-Mechanics of Electronic and Structural Materials, (co-investigator with C. Briant as principal investigator and 15 other co-investigators), National Science Foundation/MRSEC, one year, $1,500,000

Crack growth in nonhomogeneous solids and structures, Department of Energy, continuing award, ~$112,700 per year

Failure of ductile materials and components at high rates of loading, Office of Naval Research, continuing award, $125,000 per year

2002-03:

Micro- and Nano-Mechanics of Electronic and Structural Materials, (co-investigator with C. Briant as principal investigator and 15 other co-investigators), National Science Foundation/MRSEC, one year, $1,500,000

Failure of ductile materials and components at high rates of loading, Office of Naval Research, continuing award, $96,000 per year

Study of self-organization in strained heteroepitaxial nanostructures: multiscale modeling, simulation and experiment, (co-investigator with V. Shenoy as principal investigator), National Science Foundation/NIRT, four years, $1.1m

2003-04:

Micro- and Nano-Mechanics of Electronic and Structural Materials, (co-investigator with C. Briant as principal investigator and 15 other co-investigators), National Science Foundation/MRSEC, one year, $1,500,000

Failure of ductile materials and components at high rates of loading, Office of Naval Research, continuing award, $136,000 per year

Study of self-organization in strained heteroepitaxial nanostructures: multiscale modeling, simulation and experiment, (co-investigator with V. Shenoy as principal investigator), National Science Foundation/NIRT, four years, $1.1m

2003-04:

Micro- and Nano-Mechanics of Electronic and Structural Materials, (co-investigator with C. Briant as principal investigator and 15 other co-investigators), National Science Foundation/MRSEC, one year, $1,500,000

Failure of ductile materials and components at high rates of loading, Office of Naval Research, continuing award, $136,000 per year

Study of self-organization in strained heteroepitaxial nanostructures: multiscale modeling, simulation and experiment, (co-investigator with V. Shenoy as principal investigator), National Science Foundation/NIRT, four years, $1.1m

2004-05:

Micro- and Nano-Mechanics of Electronic and Structural Materials, (co-investigator with C. Briant as principal investigator and 15 other co-investigators), National Science Foundation/MRSEC, one year, $1,500,000

Failure of ductile materials and components at high rates of loading, Office of Naval Research, continuing award, $136,000 per year

Study of self-organization in strained heteroepitaxial nanostructures: multiscale modeling, simulation and experiment, (co-investigator with V. Shenoy as principal investigator), National Science Foundation/NIRT, four years, $1.1m

Biologically inspired nano-contact mechanics, (co-investigator with P. Guduru as principal investigator), Air Force Office of Scientific Research, three years, $450,000

2005-06:

Micro- and Nano-Mechanics of Materials, (co-investigator with W. Curtin as principal investigator and 16 other co-investigators), National Science Foundation/MRSEC, one year, $1,600,000

Study of self-organization in strained heteroepitaxial nanostructures: multiscale modeling, simulation and experiment, (co-investigator with V. Shenoy as principal investigator), National Science Foundation/NIRT, four years, $1.1m

Biologically inspired nano-contact mechanics, (co-investigator with P. Guduru as principal investigator), Air Force Office of Scientific Research, three years, $450,000

Realization and Integration of Large Lattice Mismatched Materials for Device Innovation: A Comprehensive Approach to the Underlying Science and Practical Application, Army Research Office, a MURI project administered through the University of Wisconsin (T. F. Kuech principal investigator) involving UW, Duke, UCSD and Brown, five years, subcontract to Brown ~$110,000 per annum