James N. Green Carlos Manuel de Cespedes Professor of Modern Latin American History and Portuguese and Brazilian Studies, Director of the Brazil Initiative

James N. Green is the Carlos Manuel de Céspedes Professor of Latin American History. He received his doctorate in Latin American history, with a specialization in Brazil, at UCLA in 1996. He has traveled extensively throughout Latin America and lived eight years in Brazil. He served as the Director of the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Brown University from 2005 to 2008. He is a past president of the Brazilian Studies Association (BRASA) and served as the President of the New England Council on Latin American Studies (NECLAS) in 2008 and 2009. He is currently the Director of Brown's Brazil Initiative; the Executive Director of the Brazilian Studies Association, housed at Brown; and the Director of the Opening the Archives Project.

Brown Affiliations

Research Areas

scholarly work

The Brazil Reader: History, Culture, and Politics. 2nd edition. Edited with Victoria Langland and Lilia Moritz Schwarcz. Duke University Press, forthcoming 2016. 998 pp.

Homossexualidade e a ditadura brasileira: Opressão, resistencia e a busca da verdade [Homosexuality and the Brazilian Dictatorship: Oppression, Resistance, and the Search for Truth]Edited with Renan Quinalha. São Carlos: Editora da Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 2014.

Modern Latin America, 8th ed. Edited with Peter Smith and Thomas E. Skidmore. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. 464 pp.

Exile and the Politics of Exclusion in the Americas. Edited with Luis Roniger and Pablo Yankelevich. Sussex Academic Press, Sussex, England, 2012. 462 pp.

“Who is the Macho Who Wants to Kill Me?”: Male Homosexuality, Revolutionary Masculinity, and the Brazilian Armed Struggle of the 1960s and 70s,” Hispanic American Historical Review, v. 92, no. 3 (August 2012): 437-69. Featured in the first HAHR Open Fórum: http://hahr.history.duke.edu/ Awarded the Joseph T. Criscenti Best Article Prize of the New England Council on Latin American Studies; the Audre Lorde Prize of the Committee on Lesbian and Gay History of the American Historical Association for the most outstanding article published on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and/or queer history; and the Carlos Monsiais Prize in Social Sciences from the Sexuality Studies Section of the Latin American Studies Association.

“A Proteção da Privacidade com a Abertura Plena dos Arquivos.” [The Protection of Privacy with Open Access to Archives.” Acervo, Rio de Janeiro, v. 24, no 1 (Jan./June 2011): 205-16.

We Cannot Remain Silent: Opposition to the Brazilian Military Dictatorship in the United States. Durham: Duke University Press, 2010.

A Mother’s Cry: A Memoir of Politics, Prison, and Torture under the Brazilian Military Dictatorship by Lina Penna Sattamini, translated by Rex P. Nielson and James N. Green, with introduction by James N. Green. Durham: Duke University Press, 2010. 220 pages.

“Exilados e acadêmicos: a luta pela anistia nos Estados Unidos.” [Exiles and Academics: The Fight for Amnesty in the United States.] Cadernos Edgard Leuenroth, Trabalho e Política 17, no. 29 (2010): 292-313.

Review of John W. F. Dulles, Resisting Brazil's Military Regime: An Account of the Battles of Sobral Pinto (University of Texas Press, 2007) for The Americas, 2010.

Review of Micol Siegel, Unequal Encounters: Making Race and Nation in Brazil and the United States. (Duke University Press, 2009), American Historical Review, 2010.

"Brazil com sotaque," [Brazil with an accent] Revista de História da Biblioteca Nacional [History Journal of the National Library] 5, no. 59 (August): 62-65.

Modern Latin America, 7th edition, with Thomas E. Skidmore and Peter H. Smith. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

"Reinventando a história: Lincoln Gordon e as suas múltiplas versões de 1964." [Lincoln Gordon and his multiple versions of 1964] [with Abigail Jones] Revista Brasileira de História [Brazilian Journal of History] 29, no. 57(2009): 67-89.

Review of Jeffrey Lesser, Discontented Diasporas: Japanese Brazilians and the Meaning of Ethnic Militancy, 1960-1980. (Duke University Press, 2007) for Hispanic American Historical Review, 89:2 (May 2009): 381-382.

Estudios Interdisciplinarios de América Latina y El Caribe (Tel Aviv University, Israel Re-thinking Race and Ethnicity in Brazil: Essays in Honor of Thomas E. Skidmore [Issue editor with Jeffrey Lesser and Jerry D'Avila], vol. 19, no. 2 (2008).

Latin American Perspectives, The History of Latin American Communism [Issue editor with Gerardo Leibner], vol. 25, no. 2 (March 2008).

Review of Marshall C. Eakin, Paulo Roberto de Almeida, eds. Envisioning Brazil: A Guide to Brazilian Studies in the United States. (University of Wisconsin Press, 2005) for Luso-Brazilian Review, 45:2 (2008): 201-203.

"Introduction: Exile and Political Exclusion in Latin America" [with Luis Roniger] Latin American Perspectives, 34, no. 4 (July 2007): 3-6.

"(Homo)sexuality, Human Rights, and Revolution in Latin America," in Human Rights and Revolutions, Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom, Lynn Hunt, Marilyn B. Young and Gregory Grandin, eds., Rowman and Littlefield, 2007: 139-154.

"Pleasures in the Parks of Rio de Janeiro during the Brazilian Belle Époque, 1898-1914," in Pelo Vaso Traseiro: Sodomy and Sodomites in Luso-Brazilian History, Harold Johnson and Francis A. Dutra, eds., Tuscon, Az.: Fenestra Books, 2007: 407-472.

"Foreword," Politics in Brazil, 1930-1964, 40th anniversary edition, Thomas E. Skidmore. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007, xv-xxiii.

Latin American Perspectives, Exiles and Political Exclusion in Latin America [Issue editor with Luis Roniger], 34, no. 4 (July 2007)

"Doctoring the National Body," William E. French and Katherine Elaine Bliss. Gender, Sexuality, and Power in Latin America since Independence, eds. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2007: 187-211.

"Future Research Agendas," [with Luis Roniger] Latin American Perspectives, 34, no. 4 (July 2007): 106-06.

"The Emperor's Pedestal: Dom Pedro I and Disputed Notions of the Brazilian Nation, 1860-1900", 181-204. Brazil in the Making: Faces of National Identity. Ludwig Lauerhass, Jr., and Carmen Nava, editors, Scholarly Publishers, 2006.

Frescos Trópicos: Fontes sobre a homossexualidade masculina no Brasil (1870-1980) Rio de Janeiro: Editora Récord, 2006, [with Ronald Pólito].

Estudios Interdisciplinarios de América Latina y El Caribe (Tel Aviv University, Israel) Re-gendering Latin America [Issue editor with Pete Sigal], vol. 16, no. 2 (2005)

Homossexualismo em São Paulo e outros escritos. São Paulo: Editora da UNESP, 2005 [with Ronaldo Trindade]. Winner of the Cidadania em Respeito à Diversidade [Citizenship Respecting Diversity ] Book Award, São Paulo, Brazil, 2005.

"São Paulo anos 50: A vida acadêmica e os amores masculinos" [São Paulo in the 1950s: Academic Life and Masculine Love] in Homossexualismo em São Paulo e Outros Escritos, 25-38. James N. Green and Ronaldo Trindade, eds., São Paulo: Editora da UNESP, 2005.

"Madame Satan, the Black 'Queen' of Brazilian Bohemia," in The Human Tradition in Modern Brazil, 267-86. Peter M. Beattie, ed., Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Publications, 2004.

"Movimentos homossexuais." Dicionário do Século XX: Guerra & Revoluções - Eventos, Idéias e Instituições. Francisco Carlos Teixeira da Silva and Carlos Gilberto Werneck Agostino, eds. Rio de Janeiro: Record, 2004.

Review of Rudy Bleys, Images of Ambiente: Homotextuality and Latin American Art, 1810-Today (Continuum, 2000) for Hispanic American Historical Review 84:1 (February 2004): 125-126.

Review of Robert M. Levine, History of Brazil (Palgrave MacMillian, 2003) and Colin M. MacLachlan, History of Modern Brazil: The Past Against the Future (Scholar Resources, 2003) for The Americas 60:4 (April 2004): 634.

"Top Brass and State Power in Twentieth-Century Brazilian Politics, Economics, and Culture," Book Review Essay, Latin American Research Review, 38:3 (2003), 250-260.

"A luta pela igualdade: desejos, homossexualidade e a esquerda na América Latina," [The struggle for equality: desire, homosexuality and Latin American left], Cadernos Edgard Leuenroth, Homossexualidade: Sociedade Movimentos e Lutas. No. 18/19, 2003.

Cadernos Edgard Leuenroth, (UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil), nos. 18/19 (2003), Homossexualidade: sociedade, movimento e lutas [Homosexuality: Society, Movement, and Struggles], [Issue editor with Sônia Maluf].

"Clergy, Exiles, and Academics: Opposition to the Brazilian Military Dictatorship in the United States, 1964-1974," Latin American Politics and Society, 45: 1, (2003): 87-117.

Seth Garfield, Indigenous Struggle at the Heart of Brazil; State Policy, Frontier Expansion, and the Xavante Indians, 1937-1988. (Duke University Press, 2001) Book review for the Journal of Social History, 36:3 (Spring 2003): 809-811.

Brian P. Owensby, Intimate Ironies: Modernity and the Making of Middle-class Lives in Brazil (Stanford University Press, 1999). Book review for The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 32:3 (Winter 2002): 505-06.

Peter M. Beattie, The Tribute of Blood: Army, Honor, Race, and Nation in Brazil, 1864-1945 (Duke University Press 2001). Book review for Estudios Interdisciplinarios de América Latina y el Caribe, 13:2 (July-December 2002): 202-04.

"Homosexuality, Eugenics, and Race: Controlling and Curing "Inverts" in Rio de Janeiro in the 1920s and '30," םינמז [Times] School of History, Tel Aviv University, Israel, no. 80 (Fall 2002): 18-30.

Latin American Perspectives 29:2 (March 2002) Gender and Same-Sex Desire in Latin America [with Florence Babb].

with Florence Babb, "Introduction," Gender, Sexuality, and Same-Sex Desire in Latin America, Latin American Perspectives 29:2, Issue 122 (March 2002): 167-87.

David Baronov, The Abolition of Slavery in Brazil: The "Liberation" of Africans Through the Emancipation of Capital (Greenwood Press, 2000). Book review for The Historian, 64: 3 (April 2002): 727-28.

"Mário de Andrade," and "João do Rio." Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity to World War II. Robert Aldrich and Garry Wotherspoon, eds. New York: Routledge, 2001.

Ian Lumsden, Machos, Maricones and Gays: Cuba and Homosexuality (Temple University Press, 1996). Book review for GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 7:4 (2001): 649-53.

"Abrindo os arquivos e os armários: pesquisando a homossexualidade no Arquivo do Estado de São Paulo." [Opening archives and closets: researching homosexuality in the Archives of the State of São Paulo] Revista Histórica (São Paulo, Brazil) 5 (December 2001): 72-75.

"Challenging National Heroes and Myths: Male Homosexuality and Brazilian History," Estudios Interdisciplinarios de América Latina y el Caribe, 12:1 (2001): 61-78.

Setha M. Low, On the Plaza: The Politics of Public Space and Culture (University of Texas Press, 2000). Book review for Journal of Political Ecology, 8 (2001).

Durval Muniz de Albuquerque Jr., A invenção do nordeste e outras artes (Cortez editora, 1999) for Luso-Brazilian Review, 38:1 (Summer 2001): 125-26.

Director and producer, Além do Carnaval: A história gay do Rio de Janeiro [Beyond Carnival: A Gay History of Rio de Janeiro] 24 minutes. Presented at the São Paulo International Documentary Film Festival, March 2001.

Translations of "Brazil," "Lampião," "The Portuguese Inquisition," and "Trevisan, João Silverio," by Luiz Mott. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 2nd Edition. Volume 2: Gay Histories and Cultures. George E. Haggerty, ed. New York: Garland Press, 2000.

Richard Parker, Beneath the Equator: Cultures of Desire, Male Homosexuality, and Emerging Gay Communities in Brazil (Routeledge, 1999). Book review for Hispanic American Historical Review, 80:3 (August 2000), 623-24.

"Introduction," Brazil in the Aftershock of Neoliberalism, Latin American Perspectives 27:6, Issue 115 (November 2000): 5-8.

"Desire and Militancy: Lesbians, Gays, and the Brazilian Workers' Party," in Different Rainbow: Same-Sex Sexuality and Popular Struggles in the Third World, ed. Peter Drucker, 57-70. London: Gay Men's Press, 2000.

Latin American Perspectives 27:6 (November 2000). Issue editor of Brazil in the Aftershock of Neoliberalism.

Além do carnaval: a homossexualidade masculina no Brasil do século XX. São Paulo: Editora da UNESP, 2000. [Portuguese-language edition of Beyond Carnival: Male Homosexuality in Twentieth-Century Brazil]. Winner of the Cidadania em Respeito à Diversidade [Citizenship Respecting Diversity ] Book Award, São Paulo, Brazil, 2001.

"Muito além do carnaval." República 4:48 (October 2000): 32-35.

"Mais amor e mais tesão: história da homossexualidade no Brasil." Interview by José Gatti. In Revista Estudos feministas 8:2 (2000): 149-66.

"More Love and More Desire: The Building of the Brazilian Movement," in The Global Emergence of Gay and Lesbian Politics: National Imprints of a Worldwide Movement, ed. Barry Adam, Jan Willem Duyvendak, and André Krouwel, 91-109. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999. Published in Portuguese as, "Mais Amor e Mais Tesão": A Construção de um Movimento Brasileiro de Gays, Lésbicas e Travestis," Cadernos Pagu No.14 (April 2001).

Beyond Carnival: Male Homosexuality in Twentieth-Century Brazil. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999. Winner of the Hubert Herring Book Award of the Pacific Coast Council on Latin American Studies, 1999. Winner of the Lambda Literary Foundation/Paul Monette-Roger Horwitz Trust Award, 2000.

"Cross-dressing Queens in Working Class Mexico." Book review of Annick Prieur. Mema's House, Mexico City: On Transvestites, Queens, and Machos. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998. H-Urban. November 23, 1998.

"The Emergence of the Brazilian Gay and Lesbian Movement, 1977-1983," in The Brazil Reader, ed. Robert M. Levine. Durham: Duke University Press, 1999. Abridged reprint from Latin American Perspectives, 21: 1, Issue 80 (Winter 1994): 38-55.

Latin American Perspectives 21:1 (Winter 1994). Issue editor of Brazil in Transition: Democratization, Privatization and Working-Class Resistance.

"Introduction," Brazil in Transition: Democratization, Privatization, and Working-Class Resistance. Latin American Perspectives. 21:1, Issue 80 (Winter 1994): 3-6.

with Enrique Assis. "Lesbians and Gays: The Closet Door Swings Open," North American Congress on Latin America's Report on the Americas, 26: 4 (February 1993): 4-7.

Latin American Perspectives 20:2 (Spring 1993) Rethinking Theory and Practice [Issue editor with Julip Charlip].

with Julie Charlip, "Introduction," Rethinking Theory and Practice. Latin American Perspectives. 20:2, Issue 77 (Spring 1993): 3-5.

research overview

James N. Green works on the political, social and, and cultural history of nineteenth and twentieth-century Brazil. His books include: We Cannot Remain Silent: Opposition to the Brazilian Military Dictatorship in the United States (Duke, 2010) and Beyond Carnival: Male Homosexuality in Twentieth-century Brazil (University of Chicago, 1999). He is currently working on a biography of Herbert Daniel, a Brazilian guerrilla leader, political exile, and AIDS activist.

research statement

New Research Projects:
Exiles within Exiles: Herbert Daniel, Brazilian Gay Revolutionary

Historical accounts of the military dictatorship that ruled Brazil from 1964 to 1985 gen-erally focus on political history and the militant armed opposition. Most narratives offer heroic visions of those who resisted authoritarian rule without examining tensions, complexities, and contradictions embedded in the leftwing political culture that dominated opposition to the gener-als. Similarly, many Brazilian politicians who participated in the armed struggle, including President Dilma Rousseff, have glossed over their past militancy, creating simplified stories about idealist youth who had fought for democracy rather than for revolutionary change. Exiles within Exiles seeks to problematize these glorified and revisionist historical representations through a critical biography of Herbert Daniel, a forgotten leader in the Brazilian left. Based on oral histories, archival sources, and other documentation, this project explores the complex life story of a protagonist who personifies many of the contradictory political, social, and cultural crosscurrents that were characteristic of oppositional forces in late twentieth-century Brazil.

While in medical school, Herbert Daniel (1946-1992) recognized his homoerotic desires. He also discovered leftwing politics. Eager to be involved in student activism, he repressed his sexuality to join a clandestine organization whose Marxist members considered homosexuality immoral and inappropriate for a revolutionary. It was his first self-described internal exile. In 1970, he participated in the kidnapping of the German and Swiss ambassadors to obtain the re-lease of 110 political prisoners. Soon thereafter, police dismantled his underground organization. Cut off from others, he embarked on a second internal exile. Living clandestinely, he read vora-ciously and rethought his politics. Four years later, Daniel slipped out of Brazil, embarking on a European exile, his third exile. He drafted his memoirs and challenged the homophobic assump-tions of the Brazilian left by organizing a heated public debate about homosexuality that polarized Brazilian exile organizations. Returning to Brazil in 1981, he unsuccessfully ran for the state assembly of Rio de Janeiro on a platform emphasizing new but controversial ideas such as gay rights, feminism, and environmental justice. He then took up the fight to end discrimination against those with HIV/AIDS. Daniel died of AIDS in 1992.

This biography provides a vehicle for investigating cultural and social aspects of radical opposition to the military regime, its aftermath, and its legacy by exploring how constructions of gender and sexuality intersected with revolutionary politics. It also offers a theoretical frame-work for understanding political and social manifestations of homophobia within the left through examining what I term "revolutionary masculinity" as an integral component of Latin American Marxist ideology. From Che Guevara's formulations about the "New Man" to self-images and symbolic popular iterations after his death, this gendered representation also draws upon tradi-tional Catholic notions of masculinity and sacrifice, forms of patriarchy, and uncritical appropri-ations of pervasive medical discourses. Daniel's lonely trajectory within the left, his internal ex-ile of repressing his desires, and the bitter debates that ensued when he revealed his homosexu-ality, unveil ways that revolutionary masculinity, with its patriarchal and sexist notions of nor-mativity, was an integral part of radical oppositional identity in the 1960s and 1970s.

The transition to democracy created novel challenges for the Brazilian left. Many revolu-tionaries turned to electoral politics and gained significant influence. New issues arose, among them feminism, black consciousness, and environmental concerns. Daniel became a bridge link-ing former revolutionaries to new social movements. Through his writing and activism, he re-mained situated between class and identity politics, engendering a dialogue between seemingly divergent perspectives. When he discovered he was HIV+, he articulated a political discourse that emphasized radical participatory activism and interventionist government AIDS policies. Though he died before his proposals were fully implemented, his political legacy continues, as the ideas he formulated became integrated into international models for AIDS prevention and treatment.


Generation 77: Brazil and the Forging of an Anti-Dictatorship Movement

While completing the final archival research for Exiles within Exiles: Herbert Daniel, Gay Brazilian Revolutionary, I began conducting interviews to write a history of the Brazilian student movement of the 1970s. Much has been written about the previous generation that mo-bilized against the Brazilian military dictatorship in 1968. In mid-December, the regime decreed Institutional Act No. 5 that closed Congress, increased censorship, and authorized the repression of opposition political forces. Over the next two years, the military and the political police an-nihilated the underground student organizations that had operated clandestinely since the 1964 coup d'etat. Some student leaders turned to the armed struggle as a strategic option for over-throwing the dictatorship, although these efforts were crushed by 1973. A new generation of high school and university students emerged in the mid-1970s and began reorganizing student asso-ciations and conducting semi-clandestine actions to revitalize mobilizations against the regime. In 1977, when five students activists from this new generation were arrested and tortured be-cause they were distributing leaflets in a working-class neighborhood of the industrial belt around the city of São Paulo, students responded by organizing the first massive public street demonstrations against the military regime in a decade.

This new generation, which I call Generation 77, was motivated by a variety of political, social, economic, and cultural influences that were significantly different from those that inspired youth to protest against the dictatorship in 1968. While an end to the authoritarian regime was encoded in that period's ubiquitous slogan "Down with the Dictatorship," students also em-braced another new chant calling for democratic rights. Unlike many student activists and leaders of the previous generation that had seen the end of the military regime as the prelude to a socialist revolution, a significant sector of radicalized youth of Generation 77 brought new ideas to the student movement that were linked to the demand for cultural and social changes, as well as political ones. As students protested in the streets against the regime, some of these activists sought new forms of political organization and a political agenda that addressed issues related to gender, race, sexuality, and the environment. These new ideas articulated by emergent move-ments among Brazilian youth upset what had been previously a pervasive paradigm among po-liticized students that considered these questions to be "secondary" and "divisive" in the fight against the dictatorship.

Whereas Exiles within Exiles examines the personal trajectory of an active participant in 1968 youth radicalization, "Generation 77: Brazil and the Forging of an Anti-Dictatorship Movement" will offer a social and cultural history of a new generation of rebellious youth that adopted new political agendas and introduced new content to public protest. The book will focus on student opposition to the military regime that was largely centered in São Paulo, the most dy-namic economic, political, and cultural region in the country. I will argue that the student mo-bilizations of 1976 to 1978 served as the incubator for budding social movements that focused on issues of personal identity and their relationship to politics and social change. Universities cam-puses and to a lesser extent theatres, served as a public space where this generation could meet to discuss question related to gender, race, sexuality, the environment, indigenous rights, land re-form, and other issues.

At the same time, the outburst of student protests played a crucial role in energizing the labor movement to carry out a strike wave from 1978 to 1980 that challenged the dictatorships economic and labor policies and set the stage for the formation of a new political leadership em-bodied in the trade union leader and future Brazilian president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. Schol-ars working on this period have seen the student movement of the late 1970s as merely a prelude to the emergence of new social movements in Brazil in the 1980s without analyzing the direct influences of the former and the latter. Nor have historians adequately analyzed the complex interactions between the student movement and other social movements that developed in the period to offer a more comprehensive analysis of the slow-motion transition to democracy be-tween 1974 and 1985. As in my previous works, I will combine oral histories with written sour-ces that will allow me to craft an inclusive analysis that integrates economic, social, political, and cultural factors in explaining the emergence and impact of Generation 77 on this crucial period in recent Brazilian history.

Brasil Grande: The History of Brazil's Aspirations to Become a World Power.

A subsequent research project is provisionally entitled "Brasil Grande: The History of Brazil's Aspirations to Become a World Power." I intend to argue that as early as the sixteenth century the Portuguese and other colonial powers recognized the economic and political potential of this continent-sized area of Latin America. Within the colony itself, priests, intellectuals, and economic elites articulated the importance of Brazil to the Portuguese empire and offered diverse notions about its immense possibilities. During the late eighteenth century, local and regional rebels denounced the relationship of the Crown to its most important colony, arguing that Portu-gal had bled the country of its riches while offering little in return. Debates on both sides of the Atlantic about whether or not Rio de Janeiro should be the capital of the Portuguese empire in the early nineteenth century again emphasized Brazil's potential greatness. After Brazil became an independent state and established an Empire in 1822, new wealth produced by coffee produc-tion refuelled discussions about how to modernize the newly formed nation and harness its po-tential. Debates about industrialization, Brazil's role in Latin America, and its relationship to the United States and Europe in the late nineteenth and twentieth century constantly relied on this underlying but seemingly never achievable promise for the country. Until recently Brazilians have cynically joked that Brazil is the land of the future and always will be. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, political stability and favorable economic conditions have provided the framework for renewed optimism among Brazilian politicians and intellectuals about Brazil's potential.

This research project will analyze the diverse ideas about Brazil that developed in colo-nial and nineteenth-century Brazil and examine their relation to notions presented by twentieth-century intellectuals and politicians, and promoted in popular cultural about the potential of a modernizing Brazil. The book will begin with a study of early Portuguese travel accounts, re-ports by royal officials concerning the colony's economic possibilities, and debates in the eight-eenth century about whether or not Rio de Janeiro should become the capital of the Portuguese Empire. The work then will look at Imperial Brazil's self-perceptions in relationship to the rest of Latin America, Europe, and the United States in the nineteenth century, the emergence of the nation as an international actor in the early twentieth-century, and its role as a member of the Al-lied effort in World War II. The last third of the book will consider the country's position during the Cold War, its economic development under democratic and dictatorial regimes, and its new confidence in projecting itself as a budding world power in recent years.

funded research

2012-present Opening the Archives Project, funding from State University of Maringá and anonymous donors

2010-2011 American Council of Learned Societies Fellowship for the research project, "Exiles within Exiles: Herbert Daniel, Gay Brazilian Revolutionary"

2010 American Philosophical Society Sabbatical Fellowship to do field research for the project "Exiles within Exiles."

2003-2004 National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship (NEH) for the research project, "The Crossroads of Sin and the Collision of Cultures: Pleasure and Popular Entertainment in Rio de Janeiro, 1860-1920."

2002-2003 American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) Fellowship to write manuscript for the book project, "We Cannot Remain Silent: Opposition to the Brazilian Military Dictatorship in the United States".

2001-2002 Martin Duberman Fellowship, Center for Lesbian and Gay Studies, Graduate Program, City University of New York for book proposal: "More Love and More Desire": A History of the Brazilian Gay, Lesbian and Transgendered Movement."

2000 Fulbright Lecturer/Researcher Fellowship, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Graduate Program, Department of History.

geographic research area