William J. CashoreProfessor Emeritus of Pediatrics
I came to Brown in 1973 with Dr. Leo Stern, the first Academic Chairman of Pediatrics, and since 1974 have been a full-time physician at Brown and Women & Infants' as well as Hasbro Children's Hospitals. My clinical and teaching responsibilities have been in the area of neonatal intensive care, but have also included examination and care of the normal newborn, and more recently work in the high-risk neonatal Follow-Up Clinic. My research has been primarily focused on the epidemiology of neonatal jaundice and the neurotoxicity of bilirubin, with some interest also in neonatal nutrition. On campus, I served as a small group preceptor in the Introductory Undergraduate Biology Course, as a lecturer in the second-year Medical Course in Pathophysiology, and in the 1980s, as a member of an informal curriculum sub-committee which redesigned the Pathophysiology course serving eventually as Course Director. I have also served on campus committees having to do with education and research, and am currently a member of the University's Graduate Medical Education Committee. My roots at Brown are deep, and I have been very fulfilled and happy here.
For most of my career, my research has focused on the epidemiology of neonatal jaundice and the toxicity of bilirubin to the neonatal brain. I am also a co-investigator in a multi-center study of nutritional supplements to increase the antioxidant power of premature infant formulas.
For several decades my principal research work has been on the epidemiology of neonatal jaundice, the capacity of albumin to transport bilirubin in the blood; and the toxicity of bilirubin to the neonatal brain, examined in both clinical and laboratory studies. I showed a relationship between gestational age and plasma albumin concentrations between 28 weeks and term; variability in the carrying capacity of albumin for bilirubin depending on infants' gestational age and clinical condition; and a possible association between free bilirubin concentration and bilirubin neurotoxicity in newborns. Basic studies included physiologic measurements of brain uptake and rates of bilirubin transfer to the brain in animal models, and the toxicity of bilirubin to the dopamine system in synaptosome. From the 1970s to the 1990s, I had funding for this work from various sources including the Hood Foundation and the National Institutes of Health, but do not currently have outside research funding for this work.
A secondary interest in nutrition has been reflected in several peer-reviewed publications from the period 1975 to 1980 on the effects of intravenous fat in low birth weight infants. I am currently a co-investigator in a multi-center trial of carotene supplementation in supplemental premature infant formulas to improve antioxidant capacity in very low birth weight infants. This is funded by private industry (Ross-Abbott Laboratory), and I am the site co-investigator in a multi-center trial.
Recipient of Child Health Grant,
Charles H. Hood Foundation project: "Displacement of Bilirubin from Albumin by Drugs".
Recipient of Grant No. HD ll43A-0l NICHHD (National Institutes of Health) for project:
"Bilirubin and Fatty Acids in Infants of Diabetic Mothers".
Sub-protocol of the Institutional Diabetes Center Grant awarded to
Women & Infants' Hospital at that time.
Recipient of Grant No. 1 RO1 HD22310-01A1 (National Institutes of Health) for project:
"Distribution and Effects of Bilirubin in the Neonatal Brain".
Recipient of Grant from Ross Products, Abbott Laboratories for AK 15 project:
"Beta-carotene Levels in Supplemental Premature Formula".
Site co-investigator for a multi-center trial, 5% effort without salary.
l977-l978 Departmental Teaching Award, Rhode Island
Hospital House Staff Association
5/l/1980 Senior Class Teaching Award, Class of l980,
Brown University Medical School
6/7/1982 Recipient of Master of Arts ad eundem gradem,
Brown University Commencement
12/12/1995 Medical Staff Distinguished Service Award,
Women & Infants' Hospital of Rhode Island
5/2005 Dean's Teaching Award, Brown Medical School,
BioMed Human Reproductive Growth and Development
Fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics
Member, Section on Perinatal Pediatrics, American Academy of Pediatrics
Member, Section on Medical Ethics, American Academy of Pediatrics
Member, New England Pediatric Society
Member, New England Perinatology Society
Member, Society of the Sigma Xi, Brown University Chapter
Member, American Federation for Clinical Research
Member, Society for Pediatric Research
Member, American Pediatric Society
Member, Perinatal Research Society
Most of my teaching consists of bedside rounds and precepting with pediatric residents and medical students during their pediatric clerkships. The location is primarily the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, but also includes the Term Nurseries, where I attend with the residents from time to time and also serve as a preceptor for physical examination and physical diagnosis. Didactic teaching in the hospital consists of regular conferences with the pediatric residents as students on pediatric clerkships, focused on the topics of newborn care and newborn pathophysiology. In the pathophysiology course in Human Reproduction, Growth, and Development, I still present several annual lectures on neonatal adaptation and medical problems of the newborn infant, and served for many years as a Small Group Instructor in that course. In addition to my course work with students and my supervision of residents, a continuing long-term interest has been the specialty training of fellows in neonatal-perinatal medicine, with emphasis on both their clinical knowledge base and their skills applied to laboratory-oriented basic science and clinical research,