Joseph T C Liu Professor of Engineering

Professor Liu's past and present research interests, largely theoretical and computational, span a cross-section of fluids and thermal sciences: gas dynamics of two-phase flows, hypersonic viscous flows, interactions between coherent structures and fine grained turbulence in free shear flows, and aerodynamic sound generation by coherent structures. Much of his effort was devoted to elucidating the role of streamwise vortices in boundary layer heat and mass transfer enhancement and in the promotion of rapid free mixing. His recent theoretical studies (and explanation of experimental measurements) is on nanofluids, in particular, in the developing thermal boundary layer region where large heat transfer rates are obtained with small increases in nanoparticle concentration. He maintains a keen interest in nonlinear aspects of hydrodynamic instabilities.

Brown Affiliations

scholarly work

"On the anomalous laminar heat transfer intensification in developing region of nanofluid flow in channels or tubes" (J.T.C. Liu). Proc. R. Soc. A8, 2383-2398 (2012). (first published online 14 March 2012 doi:10.1098/rspa.06712011.0671).

"Three-dimensional secondary instability of a spatially developing von Kármán vortex street in a far wake" (J.T.C. Liu & X. Yu). Proc. R. Soc. A 467, 675–694 (2011).

"An Explanation of Higher Heat Transfer Efficiency in Laminar Structured Boundary Layers Than in Turbulent Boundary Layers" (L. Momayez, G. Delacourt, P. Dupont, H. Peerhossaini, J. T. C. Liu), In Proc. SFT 2008 – Congrès de la Société française de thermique, 3-6 juin 2008. pp. 217-223. SFT, Toulouse, France.

"Nonlinear instability of developing streamwise vortices with applications to boundary layer heat transfer intensification through an extended Reynolds analogy" (J.T.C. Liu). Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 366, 2699–2716 (2008). (doi:10.1098/rsta.2008.0057). Published online 21 May 2008.

"An extended Reynolds analogy for excited wavy instabilities of developing streamwise vortices with applications to scalar mixing intensification" (J.T.C. Liu). Proc. R. Soc. A 463, 1791-1813 (2007). (doi:10.1098/rspa.2007.1848)

"Nonlinear Mechanics of Wavy Instability of Steady Longitudinal Vortices and its Effect on Skin Friction Rise in Boundary Layer Flow" (I.G. Girgis & J.T.C. Liu). Phys. Fluids 18, 024102 (2006).

"Mixing Enhancement via Release of Strongly Nonlinear Longitudinal Görtler Vortices and their Secondary Instabilities into the Mixing Region" (I.G. Girgis & J.T.C. Liu). J. Fluid Mech. 468, 29-75 (2002).

"Nonlinear Three-Mode Interactions in a Developing Mixing Layer" (D.E. Nikitopoulos & J.T.C. Liu). Phys. Fluids 13, 966-982 (2001).

"Linear Stability of the Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer to Görtler Vortices on a Concave Wall." (I.G. Girgis & J.T.C. Liu). In 5th IUTAM Symp.-Transition to Turbulence (W. Saric and H. Fasel, eds.) Springer-Verlag, Berlin (2000).

"Mixing Enhancement in a High Speed Turbulent Shear Layer Using Excited Coherent Modes" (K. Lee and J. T. C. Liu). AIAA J. 36, 2027-2035 (1998).

"Longitudinal Vortices in Boundary Layer Heat Transfer Augmentation" (J.T.C. Liu). In Vortices and Heat Transfer (M. Fiebig & N. Mitra, eds.) Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics Vol. 63, Vieweg Verlag & Sohn, Braunschweig/Wiesbaden (1998), pp. 328-337.

Phys. Fluids 7, 559-599 (1995).

Nonlinear Görtler Rolls" (X. Yu & J.T.C.Liu). Phys. Fluids 6, 736-750 (1994 ).

401 (1993).

J. Fluid Mech. 238, 55-71 (1992).

J.T.C. Liu). Phys. Fluids A4, 95-103 (1992).

"Longitudinal Vorticity Elements in Boundary Layers: Their Nonlinear Development from Initial Görtler Vortices as a Prototype Problem" (A.S. Sabry & J.T.C. Liu). J. Fluid Mech. 231, 615-665 (1991).

"On Scalar Transport in Nonlinearly Developing Görtler Vortex Flow" (J.T.C. Liu). Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 58, 133-145 (1991).

"Concentration and Heat Transfer in Nonlinear Görtler Vortex Flow and the Analogy with Longitudinal Momentum Transfer" (J.T.C. Liu & A.S. Sabry). Proc. Royal Soc. A 432, 1-12 (1991).

"On the Secondary Instability in Görtler Flow" (X. Yu & J.T.C. Liu). Phys. Fluids A3, 1845-1847 (1991).

"Coherent Structures in Transitional and Turbulent Free Shear Flows" (J.T.C. Liu). In Annual Reviews of Fluid Mechanics 21, 285-315 (1989).

"Secondary Instabilities of Three-Dimensional Inflectional Velocity Profiles Resulting from Longitudinal Vorticity Elements in Boundary Layers" (A. S. Sabry, X. Yu & J. T. C. Liu). In Proc. Third IUTAM Symp. Laminar- Turbulent Transition, Toulouse, September 11-15, 1989 (D. Arnal & R. Michel, eds.), pp. 441-451. Berlin: Springer-Verlag (1990).

"Coherent Mode Interactions in Developing Free Shear Flows with Application to Coherent Flames" (J.T.C. Liu). In Proc. Symp. in Honor of F. E. Marble, pp. 113-127, Calif. Inst.Tech., Pasadena (1988).

"Nonlinear Development of Gortler Vortices and the Generation of High Shear Layers in the Boundary Layer" (A. S. Sabry & J. T. C. Liu). In Proc. Symp. in Honor of C. C. Lin (D. J. Benney, F. H. Shu & C. Yuan, eds.), pp. 175- 183. Singapore: World Scientific (1988).

"Contributions to the Understanding of Large-Scale Coherent Structures in Developing Free Turbule Shear Flows" (J.T.C. Liu). Advances in Applied Mechanics 26 (J. W. Hutchinson and T. Y. Wu, eds.), pp. 183-309. Academic Press, New York (1988).

"Nonlinear Binary-Mode Interactions in a Developing Mixing Layer", (D. E. Nikitopoulos & J. T. C. Liu), J. Fluid Mech. 179, 345-370 (1987).

"Sound Generated Aerodynamically Revisited: Large-Scale Structures in a Turbulent Jet as a Source of Sound" (R. Mankbadi & J. T. C. Liu), Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 311, 183-217 (1984).

"Nonlinear Unstable Wave Disturbances in Fluidized Beds", Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 389, 331-347 (1983).

J. T. C. Liu), Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 387, 257-287 (1983).

380, 229-239 (1982).

(R. Mankbadi & J. T. C. Liu) , Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. Lond. Ser. A 298, 541-602 (1981).

Numerical Solution" (T.B. Gatski & J.T.C. Liu). Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. Lond. Ser. A 293, 473-509 (1980).

"The Generation of Sound by Vorticity Waves in Swirling Duct-Flows" (M. S. Howe & J. T. C. Liu), J. Fluid Mech. 81, 369-383 (1977).

"Aerodynamic Sound in a Relaxing Medium" (J.T.C. Liu). J. Fluid Mech. 83, 775-778 (1977).

"On the Interaction between Large-Scale Structure and Fine-Grained Turbulence in a Free Shear Flow. I. The Development of Temporal Interactions in the Mean" (J. T. C. Liu & L. Merkine), Proc. Royal Soc. Lond. Ser. A, 352, 213-237 (1976).

"Developing Large-Scale Wavelike Eddies and the Near Jet Noise Field" (J.T.C. Liu). J. Fluid Mech. 62, 437-543 (1974).

"Finite Amplitude Instability of the Compressible Laminar Wake. Comparisons with Experiments" (J. T. C. Liu & P. M. Gururaj), Phys. Fluids 17, 532-543 (1974).

"Nonlinear Development of an Instability Wave in a Turbulent Wake" (J.T.C. Liu). Phys. Fluids 14, 2251-2257 (1971).

"Finite Amplitude Instability of the Compressible Laminar Wake. Strongly Amplified Disturbances" (J. T. C. Liu & Lester Lees), Phys. Fluids 13, 2932-2938 (1970).

"Influence of Upstream Absorption on the Inviscid Stagnation Region Shock Layer Radiation" (J.T.C. Liu). AIAA J. 8, 1730-1737 (1970).

"The Finite Amplitude Instability of the Compressible Laminar Wake. Weakly Nonlinear Theory" (J.T.C. Liu). Phys. Fluids 12, 1763-1774 (1969).

"The Effect of Wall Temperature on the Low Reynolds Number Hypersonic Stagnation Region Shock Layer" (J.T.C. Liu). International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 10, 83-95 (1967).

"Flow Induced by the Impulsive Motion of an Infinite Flat Plate in a Dusty Gas" (J.T.C. Liu). Astronautica Acta 13, 369-377 (1967).

"On the Role of High Temperature Effects on Heat Transfer in Hypersonic Viscous Interaction" (J.T.C. Liu). Developments in Mechanics (Plenum Press, New York, 1961), Vol. I, pp. 417-429.

"On the Hydrodynamic Stability of Parallel Dusty Gas Flows" (J.T.C. Liu). Phys. Fluids 8, 1939-1945 (1965). "Flow Induced by an Oscillating Infinite Flat Plate in a Dusty Gas" (J.T.C. Liu). Phys. Fluids 9, 1716-1720 (1966).

Selected Publications

"Heat Transfer in Strongly-Nonlinear Spatially Developing Longitudinal Vorticity System" (J.T.C. Liu & K. Lee).

"Multiple-coherent Mode Interactions in a Developing Round Jet" (S.S. Lee & J.T.C. Liu). J. Fluid Mech. 248, 383-

"On the Growth of Mushroomlike Structures in Nonlinear Spatially Developing Görtler Vortex Flow" (K. Lee &

"Note on a Wave-Hierarchy Interpretation of Fluidized Bed Instabilities" (J.T.C. Liu). Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. Ser. A

"A Study of the Interactions between Large-Scale Coherent Structures and Fine-Grained Turbulence in a Round Jet"

"On the Interactions between Large-Scale Structure and Fine-Grained Turbulence in a Free Shear Flow, III. A

"The Response of Finite-Amplitude Wave Motions to Seasonal Heating of a Baroclinic Shear Flow" (T. F. Hogan &

"Near-wall Response in Turbulent Shear Flows Subjected to Imposed Unsteadiness" (R.R. MankbadI & J.T.C. Liu).

"On the Mechanism of Sinuous and Varicose Modes in Three-dimensional Viscous Secondary Instability of

research overview

Professor Liu's past and present research interests, largely theoretical and computational, span a cross-section of fluids and thermal sciences: gas dynamics of two-phase flows, hypersonic viscous flows, interactions between coherent structures and fine grained turbulence in free shear flows, and aerodynamic sound generation by coherent structures. More recently he has devoted much of his effort to the role of longitudinal vortices in heat and mass transfer enhancement and in the promotion of rapid free mixing.

research statement

Professor Liu's past and present research interests, largely theoretical and computational, span a cross-section of fluids and thermal sciences: gas dynamics of two-phase flows, hypersonic viscous flows, interactions between coherent structures and fine grained turbulence in free shear flows, and aerodynamic sound generation by coherent structures. More recently he has devoted much of his effort to the role of longitudinal vortices in heat and mass transfer enhancement and in the promotion of rapid free mixing. Although directed towards fundamental understanding, these problems are technologically motivated by energy and environmental concerns. His recent couple of sabbatical leave was taken in France at the University of Nantes' Institute for Science and Engineering of Heat Transfer and Materials (ISITEM), and in Germany at the Institute for Aerodynamics and Gas Dynamics, University of Stuttgart. He is a member of ASME and serves on its Committee on Heat Transfer Education, an Associate Fellow of AIAA and Fellow of APS. He is active at the Annual Meetings of the Division of Fluid Dynamics of the American Physical Society in presentation of recent work, having organized the 37th Annual Meeting at Brown in 1984 with the active help of nineteen graduate students. He served on the international committees of the Euromech Symposium on Longitudinal Vortices, Kiev, in 1994, the International Conference on Fluid Mechanics and Propulsion, Cairo, in 1996, and the International Symposium on Flow Modeling and Turbulence Measurement, Tainan, in 1998; he was a keynote lecturer at the Symposium on Vortices and Heat Transfer, Bochum, in 1996, and a guest speaker at the Ohio Aerospace Institute's Distinguished Lecture Series on ""Boundary Layer Heat Transfer under Longitudinal Vortices"" in 1997. Professor Liu also gave recent seminars at the Laboratory for Turbomachines and Fluid Mechanics, CNRS, and University of Orsay on ""Heat Transfer under Longitudinal Vortices and its Control,"" and at the Polish Academy of Sciences' Institute for Fundamental Technological Research on ""Mixing Enhancement Properties of Persisting Nonlinear Taylor-Gortler Vortices Beyond the Trailing Edge of a Concave Wall"" at the Tenth International Couette-Taylor Workshop: Centrifulgal Flows in Science and Industry, ESPCI, Paris.