Barton L. St Armand Professor Emeritus of English and American Studies

Barton Levi St. Armand (Ph.D. Brown University, 1968) received three degrees in American civilization at Brown and now teaches interdisciplinary courses in the department on such subjects as the relationship between American painting and literature, on American artists at home and abroad, and on British and American environmental literature and the "Green tradition" in American thought. He has also taught in Japan and in France. He is the author of Emily Dickinson and Her Culture: The Soul's Society (Cambridge, 1984) and is currently working on a book project titled Haunts of Nature: Essays on American Literature and the Ecological Spirit from Bradstreet to Borroughs. He has written monographs on the American Gothicist H.P. Lovecraft, as well as numerous articles on such other classic authors as Jewett, Frost, Hawthorne, Melville, Emerson, and Poe.

Professor St. Armand also writes poems and is the author of four poetry collections including the recently published American Haiku (Providence: Ziggurat Press, 2000). He has also appeared and served as commentator in the PBS film, "On Frozen Pond: The Tom Eccleston Story," (2003, directed by Kathi Wheater). He is the recipient of several research grants, fellowships and honors, including the Umhoefer Prize for Achievement in the Humanities (2002).

Brown Affiliations

scholarly work

"Illuminator" (Providence, Ziggurat Press, 2006).

"St. Patrick's Church: An Historical Outline, 1854-l979." In St.Patrick's Church: 150th Anniversary Booklet (Privately Printed, 2005)

"Preface" to Yevtuskheno's Babi Yar (Providence: Ziggurat Press, 2005)..

"Emily Dickinson as a Regionalist:New England and Other Angles of Vision." Polish Journal for American Studies: Yearbook of t he Polish Association for American Studies, Vol. 1 (Adam Mickiewicz University, 2004).

"The 'Mysteries' of Edgar Poe: The Quest for a Monomyth in Gothic Literature." The Selected Writings of Edgar Allan Poe ( Norton Critical Edition), ed. G.R. Thompson ( N.Y.: W.W.Norton, 2004) [reprint of No. 10.

"Introduction" to Babi Yar: A Poem by Yevgeny Yevtushenko (Providence: Ziggurat Press, 2003).

"Franciscan Martyrdom: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow." The Cord,Vol.51, N. 3 (September/October, 2001).

(Book) The Dickinsons of Amherst ( with Jerome Liebling, Polly Longsworth and Christopher Benfey ( Hanover, N.H.: The University of New England Press, 2001).

"'Looking at Death, is Dying': Understanding Dickinson's Morbidity," Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism, Vol. 92, ed. Juliet Byington( Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group, 2001). Reprint of N.80.

"The House of Dickinson and the House of Hawthorne: Poetic Furnishings for the Interior Life." British and American Studies 3: Local Colors of the Stars and Stripes , ed. Marta Wiszniowska ( Torun: Nicholas Copernicus University, 2001).

"David Hirsch: 1930-1999," The Edgar Allan Poe Review, Vol.1, N.1 (Spring, 2000).

(Poems) American Haiku ( Providence: Ziggurat Press, 2000).

Review of David Hirsch,Poe as Moralist, The Edgar Allan Poe Review, Vol.1, N.1 (Spring, 2000).

"Emily Dickinson Reading Walt Whitman," Visiting Emily: Poems Inspired by the Life and Work of Emily Dickinson , eds. Sheila Coghill and Thom Tammaro (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2000).

Review of John Elder, Reading the Mountains of Home, Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and the Environment,,Vol. 62 (Summer, 1999).

(Monograph) A Millennial Album (Providence: Ziggurat press, 1999).

"Books and Covers: The Bibliographic Art of Walter Feldman and the Ziggurat Press," Essay for an Exhibition held at the Rockefeller Library, Brown University, October 8, l997- November 28, 1997.

"The Book of Nature and American Nature Writing: Codex, Index, Context, Prospects,'' ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment, Vol.4.1 (Spring, 1997).

"Emerson's Wild Crab." Literary Perspectives: American Studies in Sapporo, Japan (Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press, 1995). [Reprint of No. 89].

"The Art of Peace," in Emily Dickinson: A Collection of Critical Essays, ed. Judith Farr (Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1995). [Reprint of a chapter from Emily Dickinson and Her Culture].

Review of Jerome Loving, Lost in the Custom House: Authorship in the American Renaissance, American Literature, Vol. 66, No. 1 (March, 1994).

"Emily Dickinson and The Indicator: A Transcendental Frolic." The Emily Dickinson Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2 (1993).

"Emerson's Wild Crab: American Conservatism and Indigenous Growth," Michigan Quarterly Review, Vol. 32, No. 3 (Summer, 1993).

"What's Terrible About Tenure." Brown University Faculty Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 2 (December, 1992).

"Letter to ALS re. J.C. Rowe on Emily Dickinson," Dickinson Studies, No. 80 (First Half, 1992).

"Synchronistic Worlds: Lovecraft and Borges, "An Epicure in the Terrible": A Centennial Anthology of Essays in Honor of H.P. Lovecraft, eds. David E.Schultz and S.T. Joshi (Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1991).

"Roots of Horror in New England," The H.P. Lovecraft Centennial Conference Proceedings, ed. S. T. Joshi (West Warwick, RI: Necronomicon Press, 1991).

Interview with Andrew Liebs, The Single Hound: The Poetry and Image of Emily Dickinson, Vol. 2, N.1 (May, 1990).

Review of B. F. Fisher, The Gothic's Gothic: Study Aids to the Tradition of the Tale of Terror, Modern Language Studies, Vol 20, N. 1 (Winter 1990)

Review of David Reynolds, Beneath the American Renaissance, JEGP, Vol. 89, N. 31 (July, 1990).

"Introduction" to Martha Dickinson Bianchi, "Emily Dickinson's Garden," Emily Dickinson International Society Bulletin, Vol. 2, N. 2 (Nov./Dec. 1990).

"Fine Fitnesses: Dickinson, Higginson, and Literary Luminism,"Prospects 14 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989).

With George Monteiro, "Emily Dickinson's 'Hope is the thing with feathers--,'" Explicator, Vol. 47, N. 4 (Summer, 1989).

"'Looking at Death, is Dying': Understanding Emily Dickinson's Morbidity."Approaches to Teaching the Poetry of Emily Dickinson, eds. Robin Riley Fast and Christine Mack Gordon (MLA, 1989).

"'Your Prodigal:' Letters from Ned Dickinson, 1879-1885," New England Quarterly Vol. 61, N.3 (September, 1988).

"The Love Song of Miles Coverdale: Intimations of Eliot's 'Prufrock' in Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Blithedale Romance," American Transcendental Quarterly, New Series 2:2 (June 1988).

"Heavenly Rewards of Merit: Recontextualizing Emily Dickinson's 'Checks,'" in After A Hundred Years: Essays on Emily Dickinson , The Emily Dickinson Society of Japan (Kyoto: Apollon-sha, 1988).

Review of Maurice Lévy's Lovecraft: A Study in the Fantastic, Providence Sunday Journal, July 24, 1988.

Review of Jerome Loving, Emily Dickinson: The Poet on the Second Story, University of Mississippi Studies in English, New Series, Vol. 6 (1988).

"Veiled Ladies: Dickinson, Bettine, and Transcendental Mediumship," Studies in the American Renaissance, ed. Joel Myerson (Charlottesville: The University Press of Virginia, 1987).

Review of Evan Carton, The Rhetoric of American Fiction: Dialectic and Identity in Emerson, Dickinson, Poe, and Hawthorne, Poe Studies Association Newsletter, Vol. 15, No. 1 (Spring, 1987).

"Lambert Strether's Renaissance: Paterian Resonances in Henry James's The Ambassadors," Critical Essays on Henry James: The Late Novels, ed. James Gargano (Boston: G.K. Hall, 1987).

Reprint of "H.P. Lovecraft: New England Decadent," Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism, Vol. 22 (1987).

"Stephen Sandy," in First Printings of American Authors, Vol. 5, ed. Philip B. Eppard (Detroit: Gale Research, 1987).

"Charles Philbrick" in First Printings of American Authors, Vol. 5, ed., Philip B. Eppard (Detroit: Gale Research, 1987).

"Reply to David Lubin," New England Quarterly, Vol. 60, No. 1 (March, 1987).

"H.P. Lovecraft: Anhanger Der Dekadenz Aus Neu-England," trans. Franz Rottensteiner, in Lovecraft Lesebuch (Frankfort am Main: Suhrkamp, 1987). Revised version of "H.P. Lovecraft: New England Decadent," N. 14.

Ed., "Some Alchemical References in English Literature," by S. Foster Damon, Cauda Pavonis, N.S., Vol. 5, No. 2, (Fall, 1986).

Review of The Experimental Fiction of Ambrose Bierce, by Cathy N. Davidson, Studies in Short Fiction, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Winter, 1986).

"Synchronistic Worlds: Lovecraft and Borges," Complete Works of H.P.Lovecraft (Tokyo: Kokusha-Kankohkai, 1986), Vol. 71 (In Japanese).

"Melville, Malaise, and Mannerism: The Originality of 'The Piazza,'" Perspective: Art, Literature, Participation, eds. Mark Newman and Michael Payne, (London and Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1986).

Review of David Lubin, Act of Portrayal: Eakins, Sargent, James, New England Quarterly, Vol. 59, No. 2 (June, 1986).

"Emily Dickinson's 'Red Sea,'" The Explicator, Vol. 43, No. 3 (Spring, 1985).

"Die Fakten in Falle H.P. Lovecraft" (revised and expanded version of No. 7), Uber H.P. Lovecraft, ed. and translated by Franz Rottensteiner (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1984).

(Poems) Black Almanac (Providence: Keith Waldrop,1984)

(Book) Emily Dickinson and Her Culture: The Soul's Society (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984). Paperback edition, 1986, 1987, 1991.

Review of Michael Cox, M.R. James: An Informal Portrait, Studies in Short Fiction, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Spring 1984).

Review of Ernest Lee Tuveson, The Avatars of Thrice Great Hermes, Cauda Pavonis: The Hermetic Text Society Newsletter, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Fall, 1983).

Review of The Fantastic Stories of Cornell Woolrich, Studies in Short Fiction, Vol. 20, No. 1 (Winter, 1983).

"I Must Have Died at Ten Minutes Past One: Posthumous Reverie in Harriett Prescott Spofford's 'The Amber Gods,'" The Haunted Dusk: American Supernatural Fiction, 1820-1920, eds. Howard Kerr, John W. Crowley, and Charles L. Crow (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1983).

Review of Susan S. Friedman, Psyche Reborn: The Emergence of H.D., American Studies, Vol. 24, No. 1 (Spring, 1983).

Review of Frederick Stern, F.O. Matthiessen: Christian Socialist as Critic, American Studies, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Spring, 1982).

"Robert Frost's 'Mending Wall,'" The Explicator, Vol. 41, No. 1, (Fall, 1982).

Review of Thomas J. Braga, Portingales, Gavea-Brown, Vol. 2, No. 2 (July December, 1981).

Review of Duchac, The Poems of Emily Dickinson: An Annotated Guide,Literary Research Newsletter, Vol. 6, No. 4 (Fall, 1981).

"Poe's Unnecessary Angel: 'Israfel' Reconsidered," in Ruined Eden of the Present: Hawthorne, Melville, and Poe, eds. G.R. Thompson and Virgil L. Lokke (West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University Press, 1981).

With George Monteiro. "The Experienced Emblem: A Study of Emily Dickinson's Poetry," Prospects: The Annual of American Cultural Studies,ed. Jack Salzman, Vol. 6 (New York: Burt Franklin, 1981).

"Luminism in the Work of Henry David Thoreau: The Dark and the Light," Canadian Review of American Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1 (Spring, 1980).

(Monograph) With Lois Monteiro, Images of Hope: American Culture and Medical Care in the Great Depression (Providence, 1980).

Review of Luanne Frank, Literature and the Occult, English Language Notes, Vol. 17, No. 3 (March, 1980).

"Hawthorne, Art and The Marble Faun: Some Literary Gossip," Nathaniel Hawthorne Society Newsletter, Vol. 6, No. 2 (Fall, 1980).

"Poe's Philosophy of Punctuation," Poe Studies, Vol. 12, No. 1 (June, 1979).

(Monograph) H.P. Lovecraft: New England Decadent (Silver Scarab Press: Albuquerque, NM, 1979).

"Transcendence Through Technique: Whitman's 'Crossing Brooklyn Ferry' and Impressionist Painting," The Arts and Their Interrelations (The Bucknell Review), Vol. 24, No. 2 (Fall, 1979).

With John Stanley. "H.P. Lovecraft's Waste Paper: A Facsimile and Transcription of the Original Draft," Books at Brown, Vol. 26, 1978.

"Harvey Birch as the Wandering Jew: Literary Calvinism in James Fennimore Cooper's The Spy," American Literature, Vol. 50, No. 3 (November, 1978).

"A Mallarmé-Manet Bookplate in Providence," Poe Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1 (June, 1978).

"Martha Gilbert Dickinson Bianchi," in First Printings of American Authors, Vol. 2, (Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1978).

"The Dragon and the Uroboros: Themes of Metamorphosis in Arthur Gordon Pym," American Transcendental Quarterly, Vol. 37 (Winter, 1978).

"Introduction" to Heaven and Hell: Poems by S. Foster Damon (Providence, RI: Copper Beech Press, 1978).

"Some Poe Debts to Irving's Alhambra," Poe Studies, Vol. 10, No. 2 (December, 1977).

"Emily Dickinson and the Occult: The Rosicrucian Connection,"Prairie Schooner, Vol. 51, No. 4 (Winter, 1977/78).

"Emily Dickinson's American Grotesque: The Poet as Folk Artist,"Topic 31: Studies in American Literature, Vol. 17 (Fall, 1977).

"Emily Dickinson's 'Babes in the Wood': A Ballad Reborn," Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 90 (October-December, 1977).

"Poe's Landscape of the Soul: Association Theory and 'The Fall of the House of Usher,'" Modern Language Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2 (Fall, 1977).

With George Monteiro. "Emily Dickinson and the Popular Emblem Tradition," Emily Dickinson Bulletin, 32 (Second Half, 1977).

"S. Foster Damon: Demonologist," Michigan Quarterly Review, Vol. 16, No. 3 (Summer, 1977).

Ed., "H.P. Lovecraft: The Making of a Literary Reputation, 1937-1971," by August Derleth, Books at Brown, Vol. 25, 1977.

"Paradise Deferred: The Image of Heaven in the Work of Emily Dickinson and Elizabeth Stuart Phelps," American Quarterly, Vol. 29 (Spring, 1977).

With George Monteiro. "On Behalf of Emily: Dickinson Letters and Documents (1891-1892)," Resources for American Literary Study, Vol. 6,No. 3 (Autumn,1977).

"Emily Dickinson at Yale: Recent Biography and Criticism," The Michigan Quarterly Review, Vol. 16. No. 1 (Winter, 1977).

(Book) The Roots of Horror in the Fiction of H.P. Lovecraft (Elizabethtown, NY: Dragon Press, 1977).

"Dickinson's 'For Every Bird a Nest,'" The Explicator, Vol. 35 (Spring, 1977).

"The Source for Lovecraft's Knowledge of Borellus in The Case of Charles Dexter Ward," Nyctalops, No. 13 (May, 1977).

"Curtis's 'Bartleby': An Unrecorded Melville Reference," The Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America, Vol. 71 (Second Quarter,1977).

Ed., "DeBrahm: Alchemist," by S. Foster Damon, Ambix, Vol. 24, Part 2 (July, 1977).

With George Monteiro. "A New Emily Dickinson Letter," Prairie Schooner, Vol. 51, No. 4 (Winter, 1977/78).

With George Monteiro. "Preface" to Martha Dickinson Bianchi, "My Surviving Aunt: Lavinia Dickinson," Prairie Schooner, Vol. 51, No. 4 (Winter, 1977/78).

Excerpt from The Roots of Horror in the Fiction of H.P. Lovecraft (1977) reprinted in Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism, Dennis Poupard, Ed., (Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1987), Vol. 22.

"Poe's Emblematic Raven: A Pictorial Approach," Emerson Society Quarterly, Vol. 22 (October, 1976).

With George Monteiro. "Garland's 'Emily' Dickinson--Identified," American Literature, Vol. 47, No. 4 (January, 1976).

"A Superior Abstraction: Todorov on the Fantastic," Novel, Vol. 8, No. 3 (Spring, 1975).

"H.P. Lovecraft: New England Decadent." Caliban XII (Annales de L'Universite de Toulouse - LeMirail) Nouvelle Serie, TOME XI (1975) Reprinted in part in Japanese in Eureka (Tokyo: Fall, 1984).

"'Seemingly Intuitive Leaps': Belief and Unbelief in Eureka," in Symposium on Eureka, ed. by Richard P. Benton, American Transcendental Quarterly, No. 26 (Spring, 1975). Reprinted in Poe as Literary Cosmologer: Studies in "Eureka" --A Symposium, ed. Richard P. Benton (Hartford: Transcendental Books, 1975).

(Poems) Hypogeum (Providence: Burning Deck, 1975)

"The 'Mysteries' of Edgar Allan Poe: The Quest for a Monomyth in Gothic Literature," in The Gothic Imagination: Essays in Dark Romanticism, ed. by G.R. Thompson (Pullman, Washington: Washington State University Press), 1974.

"The Golden Stain of Time: Ruskinian Aesthetics and the Ending of The House of the Seven Gables," The Nathaniel Hawthorne Journal: 1973, (Englewood, Colorado: Microcard Edition Books, 1975).

"'Young Goodman Brown' as Historical Allegory," The Nathaniel Hawthorne Journal: 1973, (Englewood, Colorado: Microcard Edition Books, 1975).

"Jewett and Marin: The Inner Vision," Colby Library Quarterly, Series IX, No. 12, (December, 1972). Reprinted in Sarah Orne Jewett: Twenty-Nine I Interpretive Essays, ed. by Richard Cary (Waterville, Maine: Colby College Press, 1973).

"Facts in the Case of H.P. Lovecraft," Rhode Island History, Vol. 31, No. 1, (Winter, 1972). Reprinted in H.P. Lovecraft: Four Decades of Criticism, ed. S.T. Joshi (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1980); Japanese translation 1983, published by Kokusho-Kankohkai Press. Reprinted by The Lovecraft Philatelic Group for the H.P. Lovecraft Centennial 1890-1990 (Pawtucket, RI: 1990).

"Two for the See-Saw: Criticism as Gesture," Novel, Vol. 5, No. 2 (Winter, 1972).

"Usher Unveiled: Poe and the Metaphysic of Gnosticism," Poe Studies, Vol. 5, No. 1, (June, 1972).

"Walt Whitman's Franklin Evans: A Sportive Temperance Novel," Books at Brown, Vol.24, 1971.

"Poe's 'Sober Mystification': The Uses of Alchemy in 'The Gold-Bug,'" Poe Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1 (June, 1971).

"Hawthorne's 'Haunted Mind': A Subterranean Drama of the Self," Criticism, Vol. 13, No. 1 (Winter, 1971).

(Poems) Skeleton Leaves (Providence: Hellcoal Press, 1970)

"Thoreau Comes to Brown," Books at Brown, Vol. 22, 1968.

(Monograph) With Alvin Rosenfeld, A Birthday Garland for S. Foster Damon (Providence, 1968)

"The Power of Sympathy in the Poetry of Robinson and Frost: The 'Inside' vs. the 'Outside' Narrative," American Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 3 (Fall, 1967).

"Explicator: An Acrostic Sonnet," in " George Monteiro:The Discreet Charm of a Portuguese-American Scholar," Gavea-Brown, ed. Onesimo Almeida and Alice R. Clemente, Vol. 24-25, Vol 24, p. 177.

research overview

Barton Levi St. Armand's research interests include the relationship between American painting and literature, American artists at home and abroad, British and American environmental literature, and the "Green tradition" in American thought. He is currently working on a book project titled "Haunts of Nature: Essays on American Literature and the Ecological Spirit from Bradstreet to Borroughs".

research statement

Professor St. Armand has written monographs on the American Gothicist H.P. Lovecraft, as well as numerous articles on such other classic authors as Jewett, Frost, Hawthorne, Melville, Emerson, and Poe. His research examines the relationship between American painting and literature, American artists at home and abroad, British and American environmental literature, and the "Green tradition" in American thought.

funded research

Selected research grants and fellowships include:

1984
Fulbright Fellowship, Japan; Certificate of Appreciation, English and American Literature Faculty, Sophia University, Tokyo, Japan; July, 1984

1980
With Lois Monteiro. Rhode Island Committee on the Humanities grant: "Images of Hope: American Culture and Medical Care in the Great Depression"

1978
Incentive Grant, Dean's Office, Brown University

1973
Bronson Fellowship, Department of English, Brown University

1965-68
National Defense Education Act Fellowship