Dr. Howe is an Associate Professor in the Department of Epidemiology within the Brown University School of Public Health. She has an appointment with the Centers for Epidemiology and Environmental Health. She is also a member of the Providence/Boston Center for AIDS Research. Prior to joining the faculty at Brown, Dr. Howe obtained an MPH in Epidemiology from the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health in 2004. She received her PhD in Epidemiology as well as an MHS in Biostatistics from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in 2009. From 2009 to 2011, Dr. Howe completed postdoctoral training in the Department of Epidemiology at the University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health.
Dr. Howe is an epidemiologist with interests in methods, infectious diseases, and health disparities. Her methodologically focused research interests include improving understanding of potential sources of bias as well as better characterizing, adapting, and illustrating the use of advanced quantitative methods to promote accurate inference in the published public health and biomedical literature. Substantively, she is interested in using state-of-the-art approaches to identify the best targets for effective interventions to improve HIV-related population health and to reduce persistent health disparities, especially HIV-related health disparities.
Impact of multilevel risk and resilience factors on cardiovascular health in racially/ethnically diverse men and women
R01 HL135200 (A. Dulin-Keita, C. Howe; MPIs)
August 2018 to July 2021
The role of resilience in addressing racial disparities in adverse HIV-related outcomes
R01 MH112386 (C. Howe and A. Dulin-Keita, MPIs)
August 2017 to May 2022
Urinary cadmium and risk of cardiovascular disease
R01 ES026614 (J. Meliker, PI)
March 2017 to November 2020
Environmental determinants of pathological brain aging in WHI memory studies
R01 ES025888 (J. Chen, PI)
September 2016 to July 2021
Behavioral science and biostatistics resource core for alcohol-HIV research
U24 AA022003 (C. Kahler, PI)
September 2016 to August 2021
Cancer of the uterus and treatment of stress urinary incontinence
CER-1409-22034 (K. Robison, PI)
July 2015 to February 2019
Role: Co-I and Subcontract PI
Pathways contributing to racial disparities in HIV virologic response
R56 AI120830 (C. Howe, PI)
August 2016 to July 2019
Mechanisms of behavior change resource core for alcohol-HIV interventions
U24 AA022003 (C. Kahler, PI)
September 2012 to August 2016
Marginal structural models to get periodontal treatment effects on A1C in diabetes
R03 DE022785 (A. Merchant, PI)
April 2013 to March 2016
Role: Co-I and Subcontract PI
Missed visits and virologic failure among HIV infected African Americans receiving medical care
K22 AI095021 (C. Howe, PI)
February 2012 to July 2014
Structural models and direct and indirect effects of alcohol use on HIV infection
R01 AA017594 (S. Cole, PI)
June 2009 to July 2011
Role: Post Doctoral Research Associate
Methods for informative censoring in HIV/AIDS cohorts
F31 DA022114 (C. Howe, PI)
September 2006 to June 2009
First Author Publications:
Howe CJ, Robinson WR. Survival-related selection bias in studies of racial health disparities: the importance of the target population and study design. Epidemiology. 2018 Jul;29(4):521-524. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000849.
Howe CJ, Dulin-Keita A, Cole SR, Hogan JW, Lau B, Moore RD, Mathews WC, Crain HM, Drozd DR, Geng E, Boswell SL, Napravnik S, Eron JJ, Mugavero MJ for the CFAR Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS). Evaluating the population impact on racial/ethnic disparities in HIV in adulthood of intervening on specific targets: a conceptual and methodological framework. Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Feb 1;187(2):316-325. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwx247.
Howe CJ, Siegel H, Dulin-Keita A. Neighborhood environments and sexual risk behaviors for HIV infection among U.S. women: a systematic review. AIDS Behav. 2017 Dec;21(12):3353-3365. doi: 10.1007/s10461-017-1771-0.
Howe CJ. Reducing HIV racial/ethnic disparities: what's good data got to do with it? Epidemiology. 2017 Mar;28(2):221-223. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000583.
Howe CJ, Cole SR, Lau B, Napravnik S, Eron JJ. Selection bias due to loss to follow up in cohort studies. Epidemiology. 2016 Jan;27(1):91-7. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000409.
Howe CJ, Cain LE, Hogan JW. Are all biases missing data problems? Curr Epidemiol Rep. 2015 Sep 1;2(3):162-171. Epub 2015 Jul 12. doi 10.1007/s40471-015-0050-8
Howe CJ, Napravnik S, Cole SR, Kaufman JS, Adimora AA, Elston B, Eron JJ, Mugavero MJ. African American race and HIV virologic suppression: beyond disparities in clinic attendance. Am J. Epidemiol. 2014 Jun 15;179(12):1484-92. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwu069. Epub 2014 May 8.
Howe CJ, Cole SR, Napravnik S, Kaufman JS, Adimora AA, Elston B, Eron JJ, Mugavero MJ. The role of at-risk alcohol/drug use and treatment in appointment attendance and virologic suppression among HIV+ African Americans. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Mar;30(3):233-40.
Howe CJ, Cole SR, Mehta SH, Kirk GD. Estimating the effects of multiple time-varying exposures using joint marginal structural models: alcohol consumption, injection drug use, and HIV acquisition. Epidemiology. 2012 Jul;23(4):574-82. Erratum in: Epidemiology. 2015 Jul;26(4):623.
Howe CJ, Cole SR, Ostrow DG, Mehta SH, Kirk GD. A prospective study of alcohol consumption and HIV acquisition among injection drug users. AIDS. 2011 Jan 14;25(2):221-8.
Howe CJ, Cole SR, Chmiel JS, Muñoz A. Limitation of inverse probability-of-censoring weights in estimating survival in the presence of strong selection bias. Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Mar 1;173(5):569-77.
Howe CJ, Cole SR, Westreich DJ, Greenland S, Napravnik S, Enron JJ. Splines for trend analysis and continuous confounder control. Epidemiology. 2011 Nov; 22(6): 874-875.
Howe CJ, Cole SR, Napravnik S, Eron JJ. Enrollment, retention, and visit attendance in the University of North Carolina Center for AIDS Research HIV clinical cohort, 2001-2007. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010 Aug;26(8):875-81.
Howe CJ, Sander PM, Plankey MW, Cole SR. Effects of time-varying exposures adjusting for time-varying confounders: The case of alcohol consumption and risk of incident human immunodeficiency virus infection. Int J Public Health. 2010 Jun; 55(3):227-228.
Howe CJ, Fuller CM, Ompad DC, Galea S, Koblin B, Thomas D, Vlahov D. Association of sex, hygiene and drug equipment sharing with hepatitis C virus infection among non-injecting drug users in New York City. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005 Sep 1;79(3):389-95.
Zullo AR, Adams JW, Gantenberg JR, Marshall BDL, Howe CJ. Examining neighborhood poverty-based disparities in HIV/STI prevalence: an analysis of ADD Health data. Annals of Epidemiology. 2019 Oct 9. pii: S1047-2797(19)30092-4. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2019.09.010. [Epub ahead of print].
Cressman AE, Howe CJ, Nunn AS, Adimora AA, Williams DR, Kempf M, Chandran A, Wentz EL, Blackstock OJ, Kassaye SG, Cohen J, Cohen MH, Wingood GM, Metsch LR, Wilson TE. The relationship between discrimination and missed scheduled HIV care appointments among women living with HIV. AIDS and Behavior. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-019-02522-8.
Janssen T, Magill M, Mastroleo NR, Laws MB, Howe CJ, Walthers JW, Monti PM, Kahler CW. The role of therapist MI skill and client change talk class membership on dual alcohol and sex risk outcomes. J Clin Psychol. 2019 Sep;75(9):1527-1543. doi: 10.1002/jclp.22798. Epub 2019 Apr 29.
Dulin AJ, Dale SK, Earnshaw VA, Fava JL, Mugavero MJ, Napravnik S, Hogan JW, Carey MP, Howe CJ. Resilience and HIV: a review of the definition and study of resilience. AIDS Care. 2018 Aug;30(sup5):S6-S17. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2018.1515470. Epub 2019 Jan 11.
Laws MB, Magill M, Mastroleo N, Gamarel K, Howe CJ, Walthers J, Monti PM, Souza T, Wilson IB, Rose GS, Kahler C. A sequential analysis of motivational interviewing technical skills and client responses. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 2018 Sept; 29: 27-34. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2018.06.006. Erratum in: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 2019 Mar; 98: 26-27.
Rebeiro PF, Howe CJ, Rogers WB, Bebawy SS, Turner M, Kheshti A, McGowan CC, Raffanti SS, Sterling TR. The relationship between adverse neighborhood socioeconomic context and HIV continuum of care outcomes in a diverse HIV clinic cohort in the Southern United States. AIDS Care. 2018 Apr 20:1-9. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2018.1465526. [Epub ahead of print].
Dulin A, Risica PM, Mello J, Ahmed R, Carey KB, Cardel M, Howe CJ, Nadimpalli S, Gans K. Examining neighborhood and interpersonal norms and social support on fruit and vegetable intake in low-income communities. BMC Public Health. 2018 Apr 5;18(1):455. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-5356-2.
Adams J, Howe CJ, Andrews A, Allen S, Vinnard C. Tuberculosis screening among HIV-infected patients: tuberculin skin test vs. interferon-gamma release assay. AIDS Care. 2017 Dec;29(12):1504-1509. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2017.1325438. Epub 2017 May 9.
Liu Q, Lichtenstein AH, Matthan NR, Howe CJ, Allison MA, Howard BV, Martin LW, Valdiviezo C, Manson JE, Liu S, Eaton CB. Lipophilic index and risk of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. Lipids. 2017 Aug;52(8):687-702. doi: 10.1007/s11745-017-4276-8. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
Gao TY, Howe CJ, Zullo AR, Marshall BDL. Risk factors for self-report of not receiving an HIV test among adolescents in NYC with a history of sexual intercourse, 2013 YRBS. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies. 2017; 12(4): 277-291. Epub 2016 Dec 12.
Zullo AR, Howe CJ, Galárraga O. Estimating the effect of health insurance on personal prescription drug importation. Med Care Res Rev. 2017 Apr 1; 74(2):178-207. doi: 10.1177/1077558716629039. Epub 2016 Feb 2.
Kahler CW, Caswell AJ, Laws MB, Walthers J, Magill M, Mastroleo NR, Howe CJ, Souza T, Wilson I, Bryant K, Monti PM. Using topic coding to understand the nature of change language in a motivational intervention to reduce alcohol and sex risk behaviors in emergency department patients. Patient Education and Counseling. 2016;99:1595-1602. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2016.05.003.
Cerdá M, Prins SJ, Galea S, Howe CJ, Pardini D. When psychopathology matters most: identifying sensitive periods when within-person changes in conduct problems, depression, and anxiety are associated with male adolescent substance use. Addiction. 2016 May;111(5):924-35. doi: 10.1111/add.13304. Epub 2016 Feb 18.
Merchant AT, Georgantopoulos P, Howe CJ, Virani SS, Morales DA, Haddock KS. Effect of long term periodontal care on hemoglobin A1c in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Dental Research. 2016 Apr;95(4):408-15. doi: 10.1177/0022034515622197. Epub 2015 Dec 23.
Loucks EB, Britton WB, Howe CJ, Gutman R, Gilman SG, Brewer J, Eaton CB, Buka SL. Associations of dispositional mindfulness with obesity and central adiposity: The New England Family Study. Int J Behav Med. 2016 Apr;23(2):224-33. doi: 10.1007/s12529-015-9513-z.
Loucks EB, Britton WB, Howe CJ, Eaton CB, Buka SL. Positive associations of mindfulness with cardiovascular health: The New England Family Study. Int J Behav Med. 2015 Aug;22(4):540-50. doi: 10.1007/s12529-014-9448-9.
Loucks EB, Gilman SE, Howe CJ, Kawachi I, Kubzanksy LD, Rudd RE, Martin LT, Nandi A, Wilhelm A, Buka SL. Education and coronary heart disease risk: potential mechanisms such as literacy, perceived constraint and depressive symptoms. Health Educ Behav. 2015 Jun;42(3):370-9. doi: 10.1177/1090198114560020. Epub 2014 Nov 27.
Gebrekristos HT, Howe CJ. Ratio of observed and expected joint effects. Epidemiology. 2015 Jan;26(1):e3-e4.
Kinnard EN, Howe CJ, Kerr T, Hass VS, Marshall BDL. Self-reported changes in drug use behaviors and syringe disposal methods following the opening of a supervised injecting facility in Copenhagen, Denmark. Harm Reduct J. 2014 Oct 28; 11(1):29. doi: 10.1186/1477-7517-11-29.
Braun JM, Lanphear BP, Calafat AM, Deria S, Khoury J, Howe CJ, Venners SA. Early-life Bisphenol A exposure and child body mass index: A prospective cohort study. Environ Health Perspect. 2014 Nov; 122(11):1239-1245. doi: http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408258/. Epub 2014 Jul 29.
Sahlu I, Howe CJ, Clark MA, Marshall BDL. HIV status, knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and antenatal care use among Ethiopian women. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2014 Sep;4(3):177-184. doi: 10.1016/j.jegh.2014.01.001. Epub 2014 Feb 13.
Escudero DJ, Lurie MN, Kerr T, Howe CJ, Marshall BDL. HIV Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for people who inject drugs: A systematic review and agenda for future research. J Int AIDS Soc. 2014 Mar 27;17(1):18899.
Naimi AI, Kaufman JS, Howe CJ, Robinson WR. Mediation considerations: serum potassium and the racial disparity in diabetes risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Aug;94(2):614-6.
Smith LB, Fadrowski JJ, Howe CJ, Fivush BA, Neu AM, Furth SL. Secondary hyperparathyroidism and anemia in children treated by hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010 Feb;55(2):326-34.
|2009||PhD||The Johns Hopkins University|
|2002||BS||Massachusetts Institute of Technology|
Appointed as endowed RGSS Assistant Professor of Public Health at Brown University in 2018
Named one of the 10 Best Reviewers of 2014 for the American Journal of Epidemiology
National Institutes of Health Clinical Loan Repayment Program - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Society for Epidemiologic Research 2010 Poster Prize
Delta Omega National Public Health Honor Society - Alpha Chapter
Bloomberg School of Public Health Predoctoral Minority Health Scholarship
Mailman School of Public Health Initiative for Maximizing Student Diversity Fellowship
Mailman School of Public Health Phoenix Fellowship
|Braun, Joseph||Associate Professor of Epidemiology|
|Clark, Melissa||Professor of Health Services, Policy and Practice, Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology|
|Dulin, Akilah||Associate Professor of Behavioral and Social Sciences|
|Galarraga, Omar||Associate Professor of Health Services, Policy and Practice|
|Hogan, Joseph||Carole and Lawrence Sirovich Professor of Public Health, Professor of Biostatistics, Deputy Director of Data Science|
|Kahler, Christopher||Professor of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Chair of Behavioral and Social Sciences|
|Loucks, Eric||Associate Professor of Epidemiology, Associate Professor of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Associate Professor of Medicine|
|Marshall, Brandon||Associate Professor of Epidemiology|
|Wellenius, Gregory||Director of the Center for Environmental Health and Technology, Associate Professor of Epidemiology|
|Zullo, Andrew||Assistant Professor of Health Services, Policy and Practice, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology|
|PHP 1900H - Racial/Ethnic, Socioeconomic-, and Other Group-Based Health Disparities in the United States|
|PHP 2250 - Advanced Quantitative Methods in Epidemiologic Research|
|PHP 2260 - Applied Epidemiologic Analysis Using SAS|
|PHP 2950 - Doctoral Seminar in Public Health|